Effect of Relaxation Training on Pregnancy Anxiety in High Risk Women

Farzaneh Rahimi, Mahbobeh Ahmadi, Firozeh Rosta, Hamid Alavi Majd, Mahbobeh Valiani



Background and Objectives: Prenatal maternal anxiety has adverse effects on the mother and fetus and child. Use of anxiety-reducing techniques for pregnant mothers plays an important role in decreasing maternal and child Psychological problems. Relaxation exercise could be improve pregnancy outcome in High Risk pregnancy and High Risk Delivery. This study aimed to determine the effect of relaxation training on anxiety in High risk mothers.

Materials and Methods: The present study was done as a clinical trial on 150 High Risk  Pregnant Women 32-35week (75 subjects as relaxation group,75 subjects as control group)referred to Health and Medical Center in Shahreza city. Data were collected using personal data form and Spielberger anxiety Inventory questionnaire .In addition to routine pregnancy care, four 90minute sessions of relaxation active Jacobsen training courses were held during 4weeks (once a week).The control group only received routine pregnancy care .Anxiety score before the intervention and at the end of the intervention were analyzed in all two groups .Data analysis was done using Ttest , tabs analysis.

Results: In this study, the mean anxiety scores were not significantly different in the two groups before the intervention ,but there was significant differences in relaxation group after the intervention (pvalu<0/001). There was a decrease in the mean anxiety score in relaxation group after the intervention whereas there was a slightly increase in the control group.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that relaxation training could reduce anxiety in Pregnant High Risk Women.



Relaxation Training, High Risk Women, Pregnancy Anxiety

Full Text:




- Akbarzade M,Toosi M,Zare N ,Sharif F.Effect of Relaxation and attachment behaviors training on anxiety in first-time mothers in shiraz city :A randomized clinical trial.Qom univ med SCIJ .2013;6(4):14-23.

- Cunningham FG. Leveno KJ, Bloom S, Hauth J, Rouse D, Spong C. Williams obstetrics.23rd edition .2010 .Newyork :MCGraw-Hill

- Pillitteri A. Maternal &child health nursing care of the childbearing family .4th edition 2003.Philadelphia : Lippincoot.

- Primo CC,Amorim MHC. effects relaxation on anxiety and salivary IGA levels in puerperae .Rev latino –am Enfermagem 2008;16(1):36-41.

- Janati Y, Khaki N. Psychiatric in midwifery. 2005.Tehran :jame negar pub.

- Adewuya A, Ola B, Aloba O, Mapayi B. Anxiety disorders among Nigerian women in late pregnancy: a controlled study. Archives of women's mental health. 2006;9(6):325-8.

- Smith SS, Shen H, Gong QH, Zhou X. Neurosteroid regulation of GABA< sub> A receptors: Focus on the α4 and δ subunits. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2007;116(1):58-76.

- Fink NS, Urech C, Cavelti M, Alder J. Relaxation during pregnancy: what are the benefits for mother, fetus, and the newborn? A systematic review of the literature. The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing. 2012;26(4):296-306.

- Warren SL, Racu C, Gregg V, Simmens SJ. Maternal panic disorder: infant prematurity and low birth weight. Journal of anxiety disorders. 2006;20(3):342-52.

- Weinstock M. The long-term behavioural consequences of prenatal stress. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2008;32(6):1073-86.

- Shahhosseni Z, Abedian K, Azimi H.Anxiety during pregnancy in preterm delivery.Zanjan univ Med SCIJ 2007 :16 (63):85-92.

- Urech C, Fink NS, Hoesli I, Wilhelm FH, Bitzer J, Alder J. Effects of relaxation on psychobiological wellbeing during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35(9):1348-55.

- Alipoor Z,Lamyianm M,Hajizade E.Anxiety in pregnancy:Risk for outcome child birth.oromiee univ med SCIJ 2009;9(1):30-38.

- Teixeira J, Martin D, Prendiville O, Glover V. The effects of acute relaxation on indices of anxiety during pregnancy. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2005;26(4):271-6.

- Okour AM,Badarneh R.Spousal Violence Against Pregnant women from a Bedouin Community in Jordan .J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011;20(12):1853-9.

- Brownridge DA, Taillieu TL, Tyler KA, Tiwari A, Chan KL, Santos SC. Pregnancy and intimate partner violence: Risk factors, severity, and health effects. Violence Against Women. 2011;17(7):858-81.

- Van den Bergh BR, Mulder EJ, Mennes M, Glover V. Antenatal maternal anxiety and stress and the neurobehavioural development of the fetus and child: links and possible mechanisms. A review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2005;29(2):237-58.

- O'CONNOR TG, Heron J, Glover V. Antenatal anxiety predicts child behavioral/emotional problems independently of postnatal depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2002;41(12):1470-7.

- Swallow BL, Lindow S, Masson E, Hay D. Psychological health in early pregnancy: relationship with nausea and vomiting. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2004;24(1):28-32.

- Gleeson PB, Pauls JA. Obstetrical Physical Therapy Review of the Literature. Physical therapy. 1988;68(11):1699-702.

- Sabeti B.Anxiety disorder during pregnancy .Iran journal obstetrics and midwives 2011 ;6(4):8-13.

- Scotf JR, Gibbs RD, Karlan BY, Haney AF. Danforth’s obstetrics and gynecology. 9 th edition 2003. Philadelphia: Lippincoot,Williams and wilkins.

- Manual national safe motherhood program (instruction integrated maternal health care) GP and mama especially maternal health Administration, Bureau of Family Health and Population Tehran Ministry of Health and Medical Education, sixth edition 1388.

- Heron J, O'Connor TG, Evans J, Golding J, Glover V. The course of anxiety and depression through pregnancy and the postpartum in a community sample. Journal of affective disorders. 2004;80(1):65-73.

- Khorsandi M, Ghofranipour F, Hidarnia AR ,Faghihzade S, Vafaei M ,Rosta F, Amin shokravi F.The Effect of Childbirth preparation classes on childbirth Fear ad Normal Delivery among primiparous women.J Arak univ med SCI 2008;11(3): 24-36.

- Bernat Sh, Wooldridge Pj, Marecki M, Snell L. Biofeedback‐Assisted Relaxation to Reduce Stress in Labor. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 1992;21(4):295-303.

- Towle MA. Maternal&newborn nursing care. 13th edition: united states of American pub.2009.

- Mirzaee F. High risk pregnancy. 33rd edition. tehran: nore andishe pub. 2009.

- Beers MA,Porter KS,Jones TV,Kaplan JL,Berkwits M .High risk pregnancy. lucile Packard children hospital at Stanford. Disease Health Info/HealthLibrary.2011.

- Domar AD, Eyvazzadeh A, Allen S, Roman K, Wolf R, Orav J, et al. Relaxation techniques for reducing pain and anxiety during screening mammography. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2005;184(2):445-7.

- Hamidizade S.Effects relaxation training on anxiety old dieses Hypertention .SHahrekord uni med SCIJ 2005; 8(2):45-51.

- Alder J, Urech C, Fink N, Bitzer J, Hoesli I. Response to induced relaxation during pregnancy: Comparison of women with high versus low levels of anxiety. Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings. 2011;18(1):13-21.

- Bastani F,Hidarnia A,Kazemnejad A,Vafaei M,Kashaian M .Arandomized controlled trial of the effects of applied relaxation training on reducing anxiety and perceived stress in pregnant women ,American college of nurse-midwives issued by Elsevier Inc2005 ;50(4):36-40.

- DiPietro JA, Costigan KA, Nelson P, Gurewitsch ED, Laudenslager ML. Fetal responses to induced maternal relaxation during pregnancy. Biological Psychology. 2008;77(1):11-9.

- Field T, Diego M, Hernandez-Reif M, Schanberg S, Kuhn C. Massage therapy effects on depressed pregnant women. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2004;25(2):115-22.

- Urizar Jr GG, Milazzo M, Le H-N, Delucchi K, Sotelo R, Muñoz RF. Impact of stress reduction instructions on stress and cortisol levels during pregnancy. Biological Psychology. 2004;67(3):275-82.

- Bastard J, Tiran D. Reprint of: Aromatherapy and massage for antenatal anxiety: Its effect on the fetus. Complementary therapies in clinical practice. 2009;15(4):230-3.

- Nickel C, Lahmann C, Muehlbacher M, Pedrosa Gil F, Kaplan P, Buschmann W, et al. Pregnant women with bronchial asthma benefit from progressive muscle relaxation :A Randomized, prospective, controlled trial. Psychother Psychosom. 2006;75(4):237-43.

- Malekzadegan A, Moradkhani M, Ashayeri H, Haghani H. Effects of Relaxation on Insomnia During third trimester among pregnant women .Iran J Nurs 2010;23(64):52-58.

- Almeida NA, De Sousa TJ, Bachion MM, Silveira NA. The use of respiration and relaxation techniques for pain and anxiety relief in the parturition process. Lat Am Enfermagem 2005 ;13(1):52-58.

- Grant K-A, McMahon C, Austin M-P. Maternal anxiety during the transition to parenthood: a prospective study. Journal of affective disorders. 2008;108(1):101-11.

- Mahram B. Standardization of Spieberger’s test anxiety inventory in Mashhad Allameh Tabatabaei University; 1994.

- Hosseinninasab SD,Taghavi S .The Effectiveness of Prenatal Education in Decreasing the Childbirth Pain and Anxiety.Med J Tabriz Univ Med Sci2010 ;31(4):24-30.

- Davis E. Heart and Hands. A Midwives Guide to Pregnancy and Birth.4th ed 2007. Toronto: Celestial Arts Press;105-138.

- Malekpour Afshar F, Salari P, Azar Pejouh H,Ismaeili H.The Effect of Education Childbirth Preparation on Anxiety During Pregnancy and Delivery in primiparous Women.J Shahid Sadoughi Univ Med Sci2005 ;13(2):39-44.


  • There are currently no refbacks.