Explaining Historical Evidence of the Interaction of Traditional Architecture with Traditional Medicine

Vahideh Rahimi Mehr, Heshmatollah Motedayen, Mehrzad Mehrbani



Background and Aim: Despite the wide range of legacy of the past architecture, there is no evidence from the scientific and technical ideas of these works and sources of knowledge from other sciences and the interaction of architecture with traditional medicine is not explicitly explained due to the wide field of these sciences and limited interactional studies between the two grounds and this relation will not be achieved only through examining the architectural works without regarding the scientific heritage. The scarcity and remaining unknown of these resources has led to its concealing or unilateral comments of some scholars from the related supporting science and the level of medical knowledge of architects. The goal of research is to explain the evidence based on the linkage of architecture to traditional medicine based on the history of scientific manuscripts to reveal various aspects of the hidden aspects of medical thought in shaping architecture and linking the owners of these two realms.

Materials and Methods: This fundamental research is done, using a descriptive-analytical method. Also in collecting data, the method is documentary, so that at first, the common aspects of architecture and traditional medicine were expressed and then the existing evidence based on the relation between architecture and medicine and its examples, using medical history, architecture and comprehensive software of traditional medicine, version 1.5 has been reviewed. It is necessary to note that the method of data analysis in this research is "qualitative".

Findings: The written evidence together with the examples of the use of medicine in architecture reveal two issues about how the two sciences communicate: 1- Consultation of the physician in the process of construction; 2- Architects' awareness of the principles of traditional medicine. Architects have tried to help human health with one of these two methods by influencing the matter of air as the most important principle in health and mental states.

Conclusion: Looking at the preventive approach to traditional medicine and the measures taken in traditional architecture, it is possible to present solutions and standards appropriate to the contemporary architecture that help improve the quality of the environment and this will only be done by teaching the principles of traditional medicine to the architects or consulting traditional medical practitioners in building the related construction.


Please cite this article as: Rahimi Mehr V, Motedayen H, Mehrbani M. Explaining Historical Evidence of the Interaction of Traditional Architecture with Traditional Medicine. Med Hist J 2018; 10(35): 79-94.


Historical Evidence; Interaction; Traditional Architecture; Traditional Medicine

Full Text:




. Abdullahzade MM. Natures Architecture, explaining an approach about the ratio of human and artificial environment based on quadruples. Scientific Journal of Iranian Architecture Studies 2015; 4(8): 137-156. [Persian]

Lawson B. Healing architecture. Arts & Health 2010; 2(2): 95-108.

Aripin S. Healing architecture: A study on the physical aspects of healing environment in hospital design. Paper presented at the 40th Annual Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA) 2006; 22-25: 342-349.

Bilotta E, Evans GW. Environmental stress. Environmental Psychology. London: Wiley; 2013.

Herzog TR. A cognitive analysis of preference for waterscapes. Journal of Environmental Psychology 1985; 5(3): 225-241.

Kaplan S. The restorative benefits of nature: toward an integrative frame-work. Journal of Environmental Psychology 1995; 15(3): 169-182.

Hartig T, Staats H. Guest Editors’ introduction: Restorative environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology 2003; 23(2): 103-107.

Velarde MD, Fry G, Tveit M. Health effects of viewing landscapes - Landscape types in environmental psychology. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2007; 6(4): 199-212.

Rose E. Encountering place: A psychoanalytic approach for understanding how therapeutic landscapes benefit health and wellbeing. Health Place 2012; 18(6): 1381-1387.

Korpela K, Hartig T. Restorative qualities of favorite places. J Environ Psychol 1996; 16(3): 221-233.

Curtis S, Gesler W, Fabian K, Francis S, Priebe S. Therapeutic landscapes in hospital design: a qualitative assessment by staff and service users of the design of a new hospital inpatient unit. Environ Plan 2007; 25(4): 591-610.

Mitchell R, Popham F. Green Space, urbanity and health: relationships in England. Epidemiol Commun Health 2007; 61(8): 681-683.

Richardson E, Mitchell R. Gender differences in relationships between ur-ban green space and health in the United Kingdom. Soc Sci Med 2010; 71(3): 568-575.

Foley R, Kistemann T. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place. Health Place 2015; 35(5): 157-165.

Mitchell R. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments? Soc Sci Med 2013; 91(14): 130-134.

Ulrich RS. Visual landscapes and psychological well-being. Landscape Res 1979; 4(1): 17-23.

Ulrich RS. View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science 1984; 224(4647): 420-421.

Kyriacou C. A Holistic, Organic Healing approach to Designing Buildings and Healthy Spaces. England: Surrey England; 2011. Available at: http://www.kyriacou.com/architecture.html.

Koohsari MJ, Mavoa S, Villanueva K, Sugiyama T, Badland H, Kaczynski AT, et al. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda. Health & Place 2015; 33(4): 75-82.

Beauchemin KM, Hays P. Sunny hospital rooms expedite recovery from severe and refractory depressions. Journal of Affective Disorders 1996; 40(1-2): 45-51.

Koohsari MJ, Mavoa S, Villanueva K, SugiyamaT, Badland H, Kaczynski AT, et al. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda. Health & Place 2015; 33(4): 75-82.

Rahimi Mehr V. Explanation of the Position of Architecture in Traditional Iranian Medicine. [Phd Thesis]. Tehran: South Tehran branch of Islamic Azad University; 2017. [Persian]

Rahimi Mehr V, Motedayen H, Mehrbani M. Creating a healing spaces in hospitals, with the attitude to the teachings of Iranian traditional medicine. Journal of Islamic and Iranian Traditional Medicine 2017; 8(4): 451-462. [Persian]

Abdullahzade MM. Natures Architecture, explaining an approach about the ratio of human and artificial environment based on quadruples. [Phd Thesis]. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University; 2016. [Persian]

Hamzehnejad M, Rabbani M, Torabi T. The role of wind in human health in Islamic medicine and its effect on the locating and structure of traditional cities of Iran. Journal of Science and Research, Journal of Naqsh-e Jahan 2015; 5(1): 43-57. [Persian]

Yazdanfar A, Dadras F, Husseini Yekta N. Differences in human temperament and tendency toward architectural characteristics. Quarterly Journal of Nurses and Physicians in Combat 2014; 2(5): 201-211. [Persian]

Rosenthal F. The Classical Heritage in Islam (Arabic Thought and Culture). Tehran: Tahori; 2003. p.306-307. [Persian]

Vitruvius Pollio M. Ten Books on Architecture. Translated by Fayyaz R. Second Edition. Tehran: Art University; 2012. p.13. [Persian]

Al-Akhawaini Bokhari . Hidayat al-Muta’allimīn fi al-Tibb. Edited by Matini J. Mashhad: Mashhad University Publication; 1965. p.16 [Persian]

Razi MIZ. Al-Morsheda va al-Fusul. Zaki Eskandar, al-Bir. Translated by Zaker MI. Tehran: University of Tehran Medical Sciences and Health Services; 2005. p.64, 85. [Persian]

Ahvazi AIA. Kamel al-Sanaeh fi al-Tebb. Qom: Natural Medicine Revival; 2008. p.19. [Persian]

Avicenna HIA. The Canon. Tehran: Surush; 2011. Vol.1 p.3, 206, 215-216, 237, 376, 338. [Persian]

Gorgani SI. Zakhire Khwarazmshahi. Tehran: Ardaal Safir; 2014. Vol.1 p.61. [Persian]

Haji Qasemi K. An overview of the history of Iranian-Islamic architecture, speeches at the sessions of the Islamic Art Exposition, the Center for the Study of the Role of the World. Tehran: Matn Honar AC Publisher; 2007. [Persian]

Afshin Mehr V, Zarandi M, Asadi M. Building 1. Tehran: Payame Noor; 2013. p.5 [Persian]

Razjooyan M. Comfort in the shelter of architecture compatible with climate. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University Press; 2009. p.5. [Persian]

Campbell M. An Architectural Prognosis: Greek Medicine & Architecture. A thesis submitted to The Faculty of Graduate Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture. Ottawa: Carleton University; 2007. p.32.

Tatarkevich V. Vitrovias and Greek Classical Laws. Translated by Fandersky SJ. Information of Wisdom and Knowledge 2011; 6(9): 42-45. [Persian]

Mohaghegh M. Fourth Twenty Speech: In Literary, Philosophical, Theological and History of Science. Tehran: Tehran University; 1997. p.45. [Persian]

Ikwhan al-Safa (Brethren of Purity). Rasael. Volume II. Beirut: The Al-Alymmi Press Press; 2005. p.254. [Arabic]

Sayyadi SE, Madahi SM, Madadpor A. Sustainable Architecture. Tehran: Lotus Publishing; 2011. p.27. [Persian]

Sameh R, Sedaghat A. Architecture leveling according to the human existential structure based on the teachings of the Qur'an and Islamic wisdom, Quarterly Interdisciplinary Quranic Studies 2012; 4(1): 39-74. [Persian]

Kabir Y. Anthropology Philosophy. Qom: Religious Press Publishing; 2012. p.528. [Persian]

Naseri M, Rezaeizade H, Chupani R, Anowshiravani M. Review of the basics of Iranian traditional medicine. Tehran: Iran Traditional Medicine Publications; 2013. p.19. [Persian]

Jan Ahmadi F. History of Islamic Culture and Civilization. Qom: The Office of the Publishing House; 2014. p.224. [Persian]

Ghadiri B. Introduction to Traditional Iranian Architects (Professor Reza). Soffeh 1994; 13(14): 88-95. [Persian]

Gorgani SI. Zakhire Khwarazmshahi. Tehran: Ardaal Safir; 2014. Vol.2 p.62, 278. [Persian]

Gilani MK. Hifzu al-Sehhe Naseri. Tehran: Ranian Traditional Medicine Publications; 2011. p.94, 145-147, 154-155. [Persian]

Avicenna HIA. The Canon. Tehran: Surush; 2011. Vol.6 p.41, 87, 178, 102-103, 176, 191. [Persian]

Gorgani SI. Zakhire Khwarazmshahi. Tehran: Ardaal Safir; 2014. Vol.3 p.138, 268, 320. [Persian]

Naseru al-Hokama MKH. Hifzu al-Sehhe. Tehran: Iran Traditional Medicine Publications; 2011. p.114-116, 127. [Persian]

Kermani MK. Dallakiyye Thesis. Tehran: Institute of Medicine History Studied and Supplementary of Iran Medical Scientific University; 2008. p. 1-6, 9. [Persian]

Aghili Shirazi SMH. Kholasatu al-Hekma. Tehran: Institute of Medicine History Studied and Supplementary of Iran Medical Scientific University; 2007. p.868, 912. [Persian]

Avicenna HIA. The Canon. Volume 3. Tehran: Surush; 2011. Vol.3 p.91, 112, 129, 132, 154, 210, 253, 270, 272, 551, 538-539, 912.

Al-Ghozvali AIA. Men Matale al-Badr fi Manazel al-Surur. Cairo: Edarato al-Vatan Publications; 1882. Vol. 2 p.7. [Arabic]

Writer A. Hudud al-Alam Min Mashrigh Ela al-Maghreb. Compiled by Manoochehr S. Tehran: Tuhuri; 1983. p.176. [Persian]

Rahimi Mehr V, Motedayen H, Mehrbani M. Traditional baths; the Preservative of health, the factor of cure. Quarterly Journal of Bagh-e Nazar 2017; 14(50): 23-38.

Taheri J. Bath in the Islamic Literature of Theology, Theory and Practice. Quarterly Journal of Islamic Architectural Research 2016; 4(10): 46-63. [Persian]

Hashemi M, Maulanaei S, Kheirandish H, Tabasi M. Examination of the principles of medicine; the hidden dimension in the architecture of baths in Iran. Tehran: Proceedings of the first international congress of new horizons in architecture and urbanization; 2014. [Persian]

Kaviyani Pooya H. Tayebi SM. The internal organization of the Al Boyeh hospitals (Azadi). Medical History Journal.2010; 2(4):47-68. [Persian]

Kaviyani Pooya H. Ancient Medical History. Tehran: Al-Maie; 2014. p.345, 347. [Persian]

Elgood C. Iranian medicine History. Translation by Javidan M Tehran: Iqbal Printing; 1973. p.114. [Persian]

Al-Teflisi Kamal al-Din Hobaysh. Bayan al-Tibb. S. Edited by Razavi Borqei H. Tehran: Ney; 2011a. [Persian]

Al-Teflisi, Kamal al-Din Hobaysh. Kefayat al-Tibb. Edited by Parsa Pour Z. Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies; 2011b. [Persian]

Najmabadi M. Medical in Dar ul-Funun and its books. Tehran: Tehran University Documentation Center; 1976. p.209. [Persian]

Dameshghi MIH. Al-Resale al-Haruniyye. Tehran: Institute of Medicine History Studied and Supplementary of Iran Medical Scientific University; 2009. Vol.1 p.119, 249. [Persian]

Nabi Pour I. Color and Light of Therapy in the Architecture Culture of Bushehr Port. Under the supervision of Shams Ardakani. Transition to the Medical Sciences of the People of Iran Earth, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran. Tehran: Sahbah Danesh; 2011. p.516. [Persian]

Pirniya MK. Stylistics of Iranian Architecture. Edited by Memarian GH. Tehran: Soroush Danesh Publication; 2008. p.41-42. [Persian]

Roaf S. the wind catcher of Yazd. [PhD Thesis]. Oxford Polytechnic: Department of Architecture; 1988. p.62.

Kiyani K. Temperamentology and recognizing the natures. Tabriz: Zar GHalam; 2015. p.53, 97, 100. [Persian]

Tahbaz M. Climate Knowledge, Architectural Design. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University; 2013. p.123. [Persian]

Motedayen H. The causes of the emergence of Iranian historic gardens. Quarterly Journal of Bagh-e Nazar 2010; 15(7): 51-62.

Balkhi AIS. Masaleu al-Abdan va al-Nanfos. Egypti: Achieving and studying the Egyptian Mahmoud; 2004.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License CC BY-NC 4.0. Copyright © 2016 Medical History JournalAll rights reserved.  All credits and honors to PKP for their OJS.

For Author | Online Submission | About Contact