Review of Sodae (Headache) in Persian Medicine

Majid Talafi Noghani, Hasan Namdar

Abstract


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Background and Aim: Studies on the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of headache disorders are abundant but headache is still known as a prevalent, debilitating and costly disorder. Persian Medicine may be used to assist modern medicine in the management of this disorder.

Material and Methods: With a purposive sampling method and criterion based approach all topics related to headache disorders from most important Persian Medicine Textbooks; Ghanoon, Al-Kamel, Al-hawi, Zakhireh, Sharhe-Gharshi, Sharhol-Asbab, Moalejaat and Ekseer were studied and summarized. In addition, The textbook of "The Headaches", The International Classification of Headache Disorders, and a number of treatment guidelines were reviewed. At the end the results were analyzed and compared.

Findings: Headache disorders in Persian Medicine are classified into more than 27 types based on the cranial tissue affected, being primary or secondary, having an internal or external etiology, their location on the head, their severity, having sequels, and the pathophysiology of pain. Some of these types are simple or material distemperments, Khoozeh, Hemicrania, headaches attributed to weakness or strength of sensations. For easier diagnosis one could utilize the algorithm of headache classifications in Persian Medicine which reviews the features of being primary or secondary, material or simple, warm, cold or dry, hypo or hypersensitive. Successful management of any type of headache disorder depends on the resolution of its cause. Nevertheless some measures may improve symptoms in most types of headaches. These are reducing eating and drinking, increasing sleeping time overnight, keeping calm and quiet, avoiding stimulation of humors and vapors, avoiding flatulent, vaporizing and sore tasting foodstuff.

Conclusion: Classification and diagnosis of headaches in Persian Medicine and Modern medicine are different to each other; however, both are in agreement about non-pharmacological treatments. Persian Medicine is capable of improving the management of patients with headache disorders.

 

Please cite this article as: Talafi Noghani M, Namdar H. Review of Sodae (Headache) in Persian Medicine. Med Hist J 2018; 10(35): 33-48.


Keywords


Headache; Migraine; Sodae; Persian Medicine; Iranian Traditional Medicine

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