Explanation of the Functioning of Oral Emmenagogues in Traditional Iranian Medicine

Atieh Sadat Danesh, Malihe Shafiee, Fatemeh Nojavan



Background and Aim: Emmenagogues in Traditional Iranian Medicine are called "Moder Heiz" or "Moder Tams" and are prescribed for the treatment of some cases of menstrual bleeding cessation. Full comprehension of Traditional Iranian Medicine treatment requires a deep understanding of how drugs work in this medical doctrine. The purpose of this article is to explain how emmenagogues work in Traditional Iranian Medicine and to come up with a series of general rules for how they affect menstrual bleeding.

Material and Methods: "Moder Heiz" or "Moder Tams" were extracted from valid Traditional Iranian medicine books, their quality and performance were studied and collected and the findings were presented in the form of a general rule in this paper.

Findings: "Moder Heiz" drugs with two effects cause menstrual bleeding: One with changes made to the blood make it ready to go out and the other by opening the path of blood. To prepare the blood for excite it is necessary to create "taskhin" and "taltif" and "tahrik" in the blood. For these actions it is essential that the predominant quality of the drug is warm. For opening the pathway it is necessary that drug be "mofatteh" and for "taftih" it is necessary that the "latif" essence be dominant in drug. The only drug that has any other act is "khollar" which by creating soda blood and forcing nature to expel such blood causes menses.

Conclusion: "Moder Heiz" drugs all have the subtle (latif) essence and warm quality, and are useful only in cases where cessation of menstrual bleeding is due to the concentration and coldness of blood. Therefore other drugs which do not have these characteristics, but cause menstrual bleeding in cases where cessation of menstrual bleeding is due to other causes, are not called "Moder Heiz".


Please cite this article as: Danesh AS, Shafiee M, Nojavan F. Explanation of the Functioning of Oral Emmenagogues in Traditional Iranian Medicine. Med Hist J 2018; 10(35): 21-31.


Traditional Iranian Medicine; Moder Heiz; Moder Tams; Emmenagogue; Menses

Full Text:




Valadan M, Ghorbani MH, Goranorimi O. Clinical gynecologic endocriology and infertility. Translated by Fritz MA, Speroff L. 8th ed. Tehran: Ketabeargomand Publication; 2011. p.477-478, 574. [Persian]

UpToDate website. https://www.uptodate.com/ contents/evaluation-and-management-of-secondary-amenorrhea. Updated Mar 21, 2018. Literature Review Current Through: Jul, 2018.

Meli M, Caruso-Nicoletti M, La Spina M, Nigro L, Samperi P, D’Amico S. Triptorelin for Fertility Preservation in Adolescents Treated With Chemotherapy for Cancer. Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology 2018; 40(4): 269-276.

Ho JR. Treatment of Amenorrhea. In: Shoupe D, Handbook of Gynecology. Los Angeles: Springer; 2017. p.145-168.

Mokaberinejad R, Zafarghandi N, Bioos S, Hashem Dabaghian F, Naseri M, Kamalinejad M, et al. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2012; 20(1): 97-104.

Avicenna (Ibn Sina). The Canon of Medicine (Al-Qanon fi al-Tibb). Beirut: Dar al-Ehya al-Toras al-Arabi; 2005. Vol.1 p.304, 303; Vol.3 p.470. [Arabic]

Danesh AS, Nojavan F. Necessity of Menstruation from the Viewpoint of Traditional Persian Medicine. Trad Integr Med 2018; 3(2): 49-50.

Mokaberinejad R, Zafarghandi N. Etiology and Semiology of Amenorrhea in the Traditional Iranian Medicine. J of Islam Iran Trad Med 2012; 3(1): 19-30. [Persian]

Tabarai Arani M, Bioos S, Tansaz M, Mokaberinejad R, JAfari E, Akhtari E, et al. Uterus Complication of Amenorrhea and Oligomenorrhea (Ehteebas Tams) In Iranian Traditional Medicine. Hist of Med J (Quarterly) 2012; 4(12): 125-138. [Persian]

Mokaberinejad R, Zafarghandi N, Naseri M, Davati A, Bioos S, Tansaz M. et al. Anatomical causes of amenorrhea of Avicenna`s view and comparision with modern medicine. Hist of Med J (Quarterly) 2011; 3(9): 151-171. [Persian]

Aghili SMH. Makhzan al-Adviah. Edited by Ahmad K, Ajib Molavi GH, Molavi GA. Calcutta: Canpoor; 1260 AH. p.8, 19, 53, 100, 678.

Moini Jazani A, Hamdi K, Tansaz M, Nasimi Doost R. Herbal medicine for oligomenorrhea and: A systematic review of ancient and conventional medicine. Bio Med Research International 2018; Article ID 3052768, 22 pages.

Momen Tonekaboni SM. Tohfe Momenin. Qom: Noore Vahy; 2011.Vol.1 p.58. [Persian]

Azodi AM. Kitab Al-Ma'. Tehran: Iran University of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medicine History, Islamic and Alternative Medicine; 2009. p.369, 836. [Persian]

Ibn Nafiss Qarshi. Al-Shamil fi al-Sana't al-Tibbia. Tehran: Tehran University Publication; 2008. Vol.1-30 p.110, 166, 213, 288, 312, 418, 444, 492, 571, 591, 624, 661, 711-725, 929. [Arabic]

Javadi B, Emami SA .Basics of Islamic Traditional Pharmacy (Based of Ibn-Nafis, s views). Mashhad: Mashhad University Publication; 2015. p.30, 136-137. [Persian]

Kashkari Y. Konash fi al-Tibb. Tehran: Tehran University Publication; 1000 AH. p.516.

Cheshti MA. Exir-e Azam (Azam’s Elixir). Tehran: Iran University of Medical Science, Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine; 2007. p.694, 704. [Persian]

Mokaberinejad R, Akhtari E, Tansaz M, Bioos S, Kamalinejad M, Zafarghandi N, et al. Effect of Mentha longifoliaon FSH Serum Level in Premature Ovarian Failure. Open J of Obst and Gyne 2014; 4(7): 356-360.

Kasiri K, Heidari-Soureshjani S, Pocock L. Medicinal plants effect on prolactin: A systematic review. Middle East J of Family Medicine 2017; 7(10): 208-213.

Tiwari P, Sahu PK. Plant's altering hormonal milieu: A review. Asian Pacific J of Reprod 2018; 6(2): 48-53.

Haider A, Spellman C, Mok M. Prolactin-Secreting microadenoma maseked by a herbal produced, "VITEX AGNUS-CASTUS." AACE Clinical Case Reports 2017; 3(1): e51-e53.

Rafieian-Kopaei M, Movahedi M. Systematic Review of Premenstrual, Postmenstrual and Infertility Disorders of Vitex Agnus Castus. Electronic physician 2017; 9(1): 3685-3689.

Shabanian S, Bahmani M, Asadi-Samani M. The medicinal plants effective on female hormones: A review of the native medicinal plants of Iran effective on estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin. J of Chemi Pharma Scien 2011; 9(3): 1270-1276.

Mogheiseh A, Nazifi S, Ahmadi MR, Saadati Ardakani ZS, Bandariyan E. Comparing the Vitex-castus extract and cabergoline effects on estrous induction in female dogs. Comparative Clinical Pathology 2017; 26(5): 1099-1103.

Zahid H, Rizwani G, Ishaqe S. Phytopharmacological review on Vitex agnus-castus: a potential medicinal plant. Chinese Herbal Medicines 2016; 8(1): 24-29.

Shoorideh ZM, Azadbakht M, Zarifkar A, Jafari A, Hossienie SH. The Effect of "Vitex Agnus Castus" Folio Extract on Serum Prolactin Consentration of Female Rats in Gastation. Iranian J Biology 2007; 20(1): 99-109.

Nabiunim M, Doostikhah S, Panahandeh SR, Karimzadeh L. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Ziziphora tenuior L. on polycystic ovary syndrome in Wistar rats. Tehran Univer Med J 2015; 73(5): 324-333.

Jafarisani M, Masoomikarimi M, Kazemi SS, Mirzaeidelaviz S, Naderi Z, Ahmadi R. Effect of Thymus Vulgaris Ethanol Extract, on Serum Total Antioxidant in Experimental Induced Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOs) Rats. International J of Health Studies 2016; 2(1): 30-34.

Ghasemzadeh A, Farzadi L, Khaki A, Khan Ahmadi S. Effect of Allium cepa seeds ethanolic extract on experimental polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) apoptosis induced by estradiol-valerate. Life Sci J 2013; 10(4s): 170-175.

Bergmann J, Luft B, Boehmann S, Runnebaum B, Gerhard I. The efficacy of the complex medication Phyto-Hypophyson L in female, hormone-related sterility. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical double-blind study. Forsch Komplementmed 2000; 7(4): 190-199.

Swaroop A, Jaipuriar AS, Gupta SK, Bagchi M, Kumar P, Preuss HG, et al. Efficacy of a novel fenugreek seed extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum, FurocystTM) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). International J of Medical Sciences 2015; 12(10): 825-831.

Najafi M, Kasaian J, Kovatsi L, Leon G, Solout EK, Hashemzaei M, et al. Phytoestrogens and the polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review of clinical evidence and laboratory findings. Farmacia 2018; 66(2): 223-229.

Kort DH, Lobo RA. Preliminary evidence that cinnamon improves menstrual cyclicity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014; 211(5): 487. e.1-6.

Ushiroyama T, Ikeda A, Sakai M, Hosotani T, Suzuki Y, Tsubokura S, et al. Effects of unkei-to, an herbal medicine, on endocrine function and ovulation in women with high basal levels of luteinizing hormone secretion. The J of Reproduc Med 2001; 46(5): 451-456.

Pekmezci E, Dündar C, Türkoğlu M. A proprietary herbal extract against hair loss in androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium: A placebo-controlled, single-blind, clinical-instrumental study. Acta Dermatovenerologica APA 2018; 27(2): 51-57.

Chegini SH, Ramezani M, Soolmaz SH. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of "Afsantin" (Artemisia absinthium) on uterine tissue, uterine Tubes and the level of pituitary-gonadal axis hormones In the rat NMRI race. Experimental Animal Biology 2018; 10(1): 56-66. [Persian]

Avicenna (Ibn Sina). The Canon of Medicine (Al-Qanon fi al-Tibb). Edited by Masoudi A. Tehran: Almai Publisher; 2015. p.98. [Arabic]

Haly Abbas. The Perfect Book of the Art of Medicine (Kāmil al-Sinaā al-Tibbiya). Qom: Ehyaye Teb Tabiei; 1994. Vol.1 p.331.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License CC BY-NC 4.0. Copyright © 2016 Medical History JournalAll rights reserved.  All credits and honors to PKP for their OJS.

For Author | Online Submission | About Contact