To committing scientific theft in medical history: who discovered the pulmonary blood circulation: Ibn Nafis or William Harvey?

Saeed Changizi Ashtyani, Mohsen Shamsi

Abstract


110

Introduction: The theory of pulmonary circulation took more than 1000 years to come into existence as we know it today. Methods: In this descriptive study, an attempt was made to gain access to reliable sources for investigating various opinions regarding the earliest discovery of pulmonary blood circulation.

Results: After the rediscovery of Ibn Nafis' manuscript no.62243 titled “Sharah al Tashreeh al Qanoon”, or "Commentary on the anatomy of Canon of Avicenna" in 1924 AD in Europe, it became clear that Ibn Nafis had described the pulmonary circulation almost 300 years before Harvey, and the historians like Aldo Mieli, Max Mayrhoff, Edward Coppola etc. clearly state that Ibn Nafis should be given the credit for the discovery of the pulmonary circulation.

Conclusion: According to the results over the false theories during the medical history which there has been some exploration of their Muslim medicine attributed mistakenly to the scientists European that this considered theft and away from medical ethics.


Keywords


Scientific theft; History of medicine; Medical ethics; Ibn Nafis; pulmonary blood circulation

Full Text:

PDF

38

References


چنگیزی آشتیانی، سعید. شمسی، محسن. کبیری نیا، کبری. (1390). نقش رازی در آموزش پزشکی نوین. مجله اخلاق و تاریخ پزشکی. ج 3. (2)، 7 تا 12.

چنگیزی آشتیانی، سعید. (1390). تشخیص افتراقی آبله‌مرغان و سرخک از دیدگاه رازی. مجله هلال احمر ایران. ج 12. (3)، 480 تا 430.

چنگیزی آشتیانی، سعید. سیروس، علی. (1390). رازی پزشکی نابغه در تشخیص و درمان سنگ کلیه در تاریخ پزشکی. مجله بیماریهای کلیوی ایران. ج 4. (2)، 106 تا 110.

چنگیزی آشتیانی، سعید. شمسی، محسن. سیروس، علی. باستانی، بهار. (1391). بررسی انتقادی آثار پزشکان در ایران باستان در زمینه ارولوژی (ابن سینا، رازی، جرجانی و اخوینی). مجله بیماریهای کلیوی ایران. ج 5. (5)، 300 تا 309.

چنگیزی آشتیانی، سعید. شمسی، محسن. کبیری نیا، کبری. (1390). نقش رازی در آموزش پزشکی نوین. مجله اخلاق و تاریخ پزشکی. ج 3. (2)، 7 تا 12.

چنگیزی آشتیانی، سعید. زارعی، علی. الهی پور، محمد. (1389). ابداعات و نوآوریهای جرجانی در تاریخ پزشکی. مجله تاریخ و اخلاق پزشکی. ج 2.(16)، 3 تا9.

حداد، صادق. خیرالهی، علی. (1936). فصل فراموش شده در گردش خون. مجله جراحی. ج1. (4)، 1تا 8.

ولایتی، علی اکبر. (1390). تاریخ فرهنگ و تمدن اسلام و ایران. چاپ دوم. قم. انتشارات معارف.

Amr, SS. Tbakhi A. (2007). Ibn al-Nafis: discoverer of the pulmonary circulation. Ann Saudi Med; 27(5):385-7.

Ayman, O. Soubani, M.D, Faroque, A. Khan, M.B. (1995). The discovery of the pulmonary circulation revisited. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 15(2): 45

Bittar, E.E. (1955). A study of Ibn Nafis. Bull Hist Med 29: 352–368.

Buchs, M. (1995). History of a discovery: Ibn al-Nafās and the lung circulation. Med Secoli;7(1):95-108

Coppola, E.D. (1957). The discovery of the pulmonary circulation: A new approach. Bull Hist Med; 31:44-77.

Dabbagh, S.A. (1978). Ibn Al-Nafis and the pulmonary circulation. Lancet; 1:1148.

Forrester, J. (1978). Ibn-Al-Nafis and the pulmonary circulation. Lancet. 10;1(8076):1269

Harvey, W. (1989). The Works of William Harvey, translated by Willis R. Philadelphia, PA: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press: 110.

Ibn-Nafis. (2004). Al-Mujaz Fi-Tibb. Al-Ezbawy A, editor. 4th ed. Cairo: Islamic Heritage Revival Committee, Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs, Ministry of Endowments.

Ibn-Nafis. (1988). Kitab Sharh Tashreeh Al-Qanun. Qattaya S, editor. Cairo: The supreme Council for Culture and the Egyptian Book Burea; 293, 386 –390.

Ibn-Nafis. (1991). Sharh Fusul Apocrat. Ziedan Y, Abdel-Qadir M, editors. Cairo: AL Dar AL-Masreyya AL Lubnaneyyah.

Ibn-Nafis. (2000). AL-Shamil Fi AL-Sinaa AL-Tibbiyyah. Ziedan Y, editor. Abu Dhabi (UAE): AL-Mujammaa AL-Thaaqfi, 1 (2): 14-17.

John, B. (2008). Ibn al-Nafis, the pulmonary circulation, and the Islamic Golden Age. J Appl Physiol 105: 1877–1880.

Kahya, E. (1995). Ibn al-Nafīs and his work, Kitāb Mūjiz al-Qānūn. Stud Hist Med Sci;9(3-4):89-94

Keys, T.E., Wakim, K.G. (1953). Contributions of the Arabs to medicine. Proceedings of the staff meet. Mayo Clinic; 28:423-37.

Khulusi, S.A. (1978). Who discovered the circulation of the blood? Br Med J. 13;1(6122):1279

Loukas, M., Lam, R., Tubbs, R.S., Shoja, M.M. (2008). Apaydin N. Ibn al-Nafis (1210-1288): the first description of the pulmonary circulation. Am Surg.;74(5):440-2

Masic, I., Dilic, M., Solakovic, E., Rustempasic, N., Ridjanovic,Z. (2008). Why historians of medicine called Ibn al-Nafis second Avicenna?Med Arh;62(4):244-9

Mettler, C.C. (1947). History of Medicine. Philadelphia, PA, USA. The Blakiston Co: 113-128.

O’Malley, C.D. (1953). Michael Servetus. Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical

Society: 110

Omar, M. (2009). 400 years before Harvey's observation, Ibn Al-Nafis, a Syrian Arab physician correctly described the pulmonary circulation. Cardiovascular J Afr; 20(5):299

Qatayyah, S. (1984). The Arabic Physician Ibn Nafis (in Arabic). 1st Ed. Beirut: Arabic Corporation for Studies and Publication:37-43.

Verma, R.L. (1969). Ibn-an-Nafis: pioneer in modern system of medicine. Al-Arabi; 8(6):16-20

Zahoor, A. (2012). Ibn al-Nafis Damaishqi. Available from: URL: http://www.unhas.ac.id/rhiza/saintis/Nafis.html. access in 2012.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License CC BY-NC 4.0. Copyright © 2016 Medical History JournalAll rights reserved.  All credits and honors to PKP for their OJS.

For Author | Online Submission | About Contact