Spiritual well-being in the Iranian older people: A qualitative study

Ali Darvishpoor Kakhki



Background: The world’s elderly population is the fastest growing age group especially in developing countries such as Iran. In spite of studies about health of older people, there are a few studies about exploration of spiritual well-being of older people. This study was conducted to understand and gain deeper insight into Iranian older people lived experiences of spiritual well-being.

Method: A qualitative research design based on van Manens phenomenological methodology developed. In-depth open ended interviews used to collect the data from 16 older people that selected based on purposeful sampling of workplace, park and cultural center. Research activities of van Manens methodology used for analysis of verbatim transcripts. Trustworthiness of qualitative data is confirmed by criteria’s of credibility, conformability, dependability and transferability.

Results: Three themes favor of God, hope, and calm, were emerged which the phenomenon of spiritual well-being could be illustrated. The favor of God was included sub themes of health as favor, authority of God and being responsible. The hope was included sub themes of being feeled, overcome on disappointments, and beautiful mind. The calm was included sub themes of spiritual well-being as interstices believe and behavioral symbol of it.

Conclusion: The spiritual well-being is of main domains of health in older people. The spiritual well being is in close relationship with beliefs and religions of older peoples. It provides goal and direction for health and lives of older people. These findings must consider in promotion health of older person.

Please cite this article as:

Darvishpoor Kakhki, A. (2016). Spiritual well-being in the Iranian older people: A qualitative study. J Med History. 7(25): 11-32.


Phenomenology; Spiritual Health; Elderly; Iran

Full Text:




Averill, JB. (2002). Voices from the Gila: Health care issues for rural elders in south-western New Mexico. J Adv Nurs. 40(6): 654-662.

Borglin, G. Edberg, AK. Hallberg, IR. (2005). The experience of quality of life among older people. J Aging Stud. 19(2): 201-220.

Burns, N. Grove, SK. (2005). The practice of nursing research: Conduct, critique & utilization. 5th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co; 58-59.

Caldas, CP. Berterö, CM. (2007). Living as an oldest old in Rio de Janeiro: The lived experience told. Nurs Sci Q. 20(4): 376-382.

Darvishpoor Kakhki, A. Abed Saeedi, Z. (2013). Factors related to Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of elderly people in Tehran. Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery Quarterly of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. 23(82): 8-16.

Darvishpoor Kakhki, A. Abed Saeedi, Z. Delavar, A. (2014). Diseases of old people referring to elderly centers of Tehran. Payavard Salamat. 7(6): 479-489.

Darvishpoor Kakhki, A. Abed saeedi, Z. Delavar, A. Saeed-O-Zakerin, M. (2010). Autonomy in the elderly: A phenomenological study. Hakim Research Journal. 12(4): 1-10.

Esfahani, SM. (2010). Spiritual health and attitudes. The Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics. 4(14):41-49.

Foladi, N. Salsali, M. Ghofranipour, F. (2007). Facilitating and impending factors in health promotion for patients with chronic illness: A qualitative study. Iran J Public Health. 36(4): 35-41.

Gerrish, K. Lacey, A. (2006). The research process in nursing. 5th ed. London: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 211-212.

Jadidi, A. Farahaninia, M. Janmohammadi, S. Haghani, H. (2011). The Relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of life among elderly people residing in kahrizak senior house. Iran Journal of Nursing. 24(72): 48-56.

Kiefer, RA. (2008). An integrative review of the concept of well-being. Holist Nurs Pract. 22 (5): 244-252.

Magilvy, JK. Congdon, JG. Martinez, RJ. Davis, R. Averill, J. (2002). Caring for our own: Health care experiences of rural Hispanic elders. J Aging Stud. 14(2): 171-190.

Malek Afzali, H. Baradarn Eftekahri, M. Hejazi, F. Khojasteh, T. Tabrizi, R. Faridi, T. (2006). Health promotion in elderly people in Ekbatan of Tehran. Journal of Hakim Research. 9(4): 1-6.

Marandi, SA. Azizi, F. (2010). Construct, definition and challenges spiritual health in Iran. The Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics. 4(14): 11-21.

Mass, ML. Buckwalter, KC. Hardy, MD. Tripp-Reimer, T. Titler, MG. Specht, JP. (2001). Nursing care of older adults: Diagnoses, outcomes & interventions. Philadelphia: Mosby, Inc; 1-5.

Mesbah, A. (2010). Exploration of spirituality and soul. The Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics. 4(14): 23-39.

Mogimian, M. Salmani, F. (2012). Correlation of spirtual well-being a hope in cancer patients referred to Seid Al Shohada affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Qom University of Medical Sciences. 6(3): 40-45.

Mohageg Damad, SM. (2010). Construct of spiritual well-being in Islamic Literature. Journal of Medical Ethics. 4(14): 51-63.

Peiman, H. (2012). Prevalence of chronic diseases in elderly people in Ilam. Iranian Journal of Aging. 6(22): 7-13.

Rahimi, A. Anoosheh, M. Ahmadi, F. Foroughan, M. (2013). Exploring spirituality in Iranian healthy elderly people: A qualitative content analysis. Iranian J Nursing Midwifery Res. 18(2): 163-170.

Saberian, M. Haji Agajani, S. Gorbani, R. (2003). Evaluation of socioeconomical status, health and recreational time in Semnan city. Journal of Semnan University of Medical Sciences. 4(3-4): 129-36.

Saydshohadai, M. Heshmat, SH. Seidfatemi, N. Haghani, H. Mehrdad, N. (2013). The Spiritual Health of Seniors Living in Sanitarium and Home Residents. Iran Journal of Nursing. 26(81): 11-20.

Seid Fatemi, N. Rezaie, M. Givari, A. Hosseini, F. (2006). Effect of prey on spiritual well-being of cancer patients. Health Monitor. 5(4): 295-304.

Sharifnia, SH. Hojati, H. Nazari, R. Gorbani, M. Akhondzadeh, G. (2012). Effect of prey on spiritual well-being of hemodialysis patients. Iranian Journal of Critical Care Nursing. 5(1): 29-34.

Shojaie, A. Akbari Kamrani, AA. Faday Vatan, R. Azimian, M. Gafari, SH. Jamali, MR. (2012). Costs and diseases in elderly people refers to healath insurance organization of Tehran. Iranian Journal of Aging. 6(22): 65-74.

Smeltzer, SC. Bare, BG. (2008). Brunner & Suddarth Textbook of Medical - Surgical Nursing. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Co; 189-191.

Statistical Centre of Iran. (2011). Statistical year book of Iran. Tehran: Publication of Statistical Centre of Iran; 27-29.

Streubert, HJ. Carpenter, DR. (2011). Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Co; 48-50.

Tabloski, PA. (2006). Gerontological nursing. Philadelphia: Pearson Prentice Hall; 45-46.

Van Manen, M. (2001). Researching Lived Experience. Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. Ontario: University of Western Ontario; 92-93.

World Health Organization (WHO). Interesting facts about ageing. Cited 14 April 2016; Available at: http://www.who.int/ageing/about/facts/en.

Yoho, MJ. Ezeobele, II. (2002). Health and meaning: A perspective of geriatric Hispanic women. Geriatr Nurs. 23(5): 268-271.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License CC BY-NC 4.0. Copyright © 2016 Medical History JournalAll rights reserved.  All credits and honors to PKP for their OJS.

For Author | Online Submission | About Contact