The Challenges of Euthanasia in People under the Age of 18
Background and Aim: The issue of euthanasia has been a matter of ethical medicine since the away times in the field of ethics, and have serious advisers and opponents. Their attitudes are based on the philosophy of "right" and "the right to life" and "the right to die", and on the other hand, the opposition, based on the principles The philosophy of "duty-oriented" or "philosophy of virtue." According to the philosophy of "the right", the discussion of "the right to choose easy death" or "euthanasia" in people under the age of 18 years is also raised and In 2014 Belgium acknowledged that there were many controversies about it, including the right to choose, the right to choose, the ability to withstand this responsibility and eligibility. Enough to do this.
Materials and Methods: In this article, a narrative review based on the searches of the words "Euthanasia" and "Children" on Iranian and foreign sites, including google scholar & Pupmed, between 2011 and 2017, as well as review of articles, articles and articles on "Children's Rights" in domestic sources, attempts to gather content and It has been analyzed
Findings: In the review, it was determined that socio-religious differences, religious, ethical and customary doctrines, and the attitude towards the "right" issue in the issue of euthanasia in children under the age of 18 years were very high in different countries, and at the same time different from the issue of euthanasia in adults. Particular complexities.
Ethical Considerations: Honesty and non-profit in the report of texts and resources, reference to valid sources and attempts to avoid any bias. This research is carried out at a personal expense without any financial support or central affiliation.
Conclusion: Euthanasia license generally, and for people under the age of 18, should be considered in particular, regardless of individual rights. Also, attention to principles such as respect for the autonomy of individuals due to limitations and specifics of it in different countries, cultures and religions, and the complexity of the issue under discussion, alone and without regard to the principles of profitability, lack of financial and justice to decide on this issue It is not enough and, like many moral challenges, it needs to be more explicit and comprehensive in order to arrive at acceptable solutions with more varied analytical approaches.
Cite this article as: Moosavinejad SH. The Challenges of Euthanasia in People under the Age of 18. Med Ethics J. 2018; 12(43): e16.
Nazari Tavakoli S, Kerachiyan F. Comparative Study of Inactive Voluntary Euthanasia in Kantian. Ethics and Islamic Medical Ethics Journal 2011; 5(15): 164-189. [Persian]
Eslami H. Good death in moral perspective. A Research Quarterly in Islamic Ethics 2010; 1(4): 28-54. [Persian]
Movahedi M, Tavakoli G. Euthanasia in religion based deontology. Med Ethics J 2016; 10(34): 165-186. [Persian]
Larijani B. Physician and moral considerations. Tehran: Baray-e Farad; 1383. Vol.1.
Âfzali MA. Human Dignity and Euthanasia in Islamic Ethics. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences 2011; 20(78): 83-95. [Persian]
Rezaei Aderyani M, Javadi M, Nazari Tavakkoli S, Kiani M, Abbasi M. Conceptualization of Idle (Laghw) and its relation to medical futility. J Med Ethics Hist Med 2016; 9: 1-9.
Hondrich T. The Oxford companion to philosophy. NewYork: Golshaiyan; 1995.
Appel JM. A duty to kill? A duty to die? Rethinking the euthanasia controversy of 1906. Bull Hist Med 2004; 78(3): 610-634.
Lifton RJ. The Nazi doctors: Medical killing and the psychology of genocide. New York: Basic Books; 1986.
Raus K. The Extension of Belgium's Euthanasia Law to Include Competent Minors. J Bioeth Inq 2016; 13(2): 305-315.
Bovens L. Child euthanasia: should we just not talk about it? J Med Ethics 2015; 41(8): 630-634.
Mahmoodian F, Yosefi Manesh H, Behnam M, Karami M. Euthanasia: a comparison between agreements and objections. J Med Ethics Hist Med 2010; 2(3): 18-125. [Persian]
Peyman A, Abbasi Z. Criticizing Groningen Protocol in Support of Euthanasia for disabled newborns from a moral perspective. Med Ethics J 2012; 6(18): 35-53. [Persian]
Sadat-Hosein AI, Aramesh K. Ethical challenge about palliative care in pediatric. Med Ethics J 2013; 7(25): 55-81. [Persian]
Hain RD. Euthanasia: 10 myths. Arch Dis Child 2014; 99(9): 798-799.
Cuman G, Gastmans C. Minors and euthanasia: A systematic review of argument-based ethics literature. Eur J Pediatr 2017; 176(7): 837-847.
Hanson SS. Pediatric Euthanasia and Palliative Care Can Work Together. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2016; 33(5): 421-424.
Kaczor C. Against euthanasia for children: A response to Bovens. J Med Ethics 2016; 42(1): 57-58.
Keeling G. The sensitivity argument against child euthanasia. J Med Ethics 2017; 44(2): 143-144.
Hosseini A, Rezaei M, Bahrami M, Abbasi M, Hariri H. The Relationship between Dignity Status and Quality of Life in Iranian Terminally Ill Patients with Cancer. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2017; 22(3): 178-183.
Giglio F, Spagnolo AG. Pediatric euthanasia in Belgium: some ethical considerations. Journal of Medicine and the Person 2014; 12(3): 146-149.
Shokri F. Legal scrutiny of the age of marriage and the growth of girls. Womens Strategic Studies Journal 2009; 40. Availabe at: http://www.ensani.ir/fa/article/ 2026. [persian]
General team & condition - deposit guarantee housing savings. Cited May 8, 2018. Available at: https://www.bmi.ir/fa/services/224/%d8%b3%d9%be%d8%b1%d8%af%d9%87%20%d9%82%d8%b1%d8%b6%20%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%ad%d8%b3%d9%86%d9%87%20%d9%be%d8%b3%20%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%af%d8%a7%d8%b2. [Persian]
Based on the obtained author agreement upon submission, "Medical Ethics Journal" is the copyright owner of the published material. However, according to Bethesda Statement, all works published in this journal are open access and freely available to anyone on the journal web site without cost under CC BY-NC 4.0. Based on this license, under the condition of proper citation, “Medical Ethics Journal” grants to all users the following rights:
1. Free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual access to all published materials.
2. To copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work.
3. To make and distribute derivative works in any digital medium for any non-commercial purpose under the same license.