Spiritual Health and its Related Factors in Patients with Thalassemia Major

Yaghoob Madmoli, Yosra Ahmadi, Marzieh Beigom Bigdeli Shamloo, Fateme Rostami, Mahboobe Khodadadi, Mojtaba Raji, Ehsan Bandani-Tarashoki



Background and Aim: Thalassemia is an inherited autosomal recessive disease originating from the countries of the Mediterranean region that is deficient globin chain synthesis. Despite medical advances that have been made in the survival of these patients, especially patients with thalassemia major are increased. However, mental health problems - social nature of chronic disease is still the major challenges facing these patients. This study aimed to investigate the spiritual health and its related factors in patients with thalassemia major was performed.

Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study on 101 patients with thalassemia major in thalassemia major ward of dezful hospital with purposive sampling was conducted in 2015. Data were collected with demographic and spiritual health standard Dolmen and Ferry questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS 18 and statistical analysis ANOVA, T independent, linear regression and Pearson's correlation coefficient with significant level of P<0/05 were analyzed.

Findings: The mean patient age was 23.22±5.4 which 60.4% were male and %39.6 was female. The average score of spiritual health and self-efficacy subscale 34.58 and 14.68 respectively, which indicates the average level of the subscales. Average of life plan sub scale was 19.8 that is indicative of the high level of this sub-scale. There was no significant relationship between sex and spiritual health (P>0.05).

Ethical Considerations: The present study was conducted with the patient's privacy and with written informed consent from patients and without any cost to them.

Conclusion: The study showed that the spiritual health of patients with thalassemia major usually is at the average level and according to the relationship spiritual health and well-being of patients is required that steps be taken to improve their health.


Cite this article as: Madmoli Y, Ahmadi Y, Beigom Bigdeli Shamloo M, Rostami F, Khodadadi M, Raji M, Bandani-Tarashoki E. Spiritual Health and its Related Factors in Patients with Thalassemia Major. Med Ethics J. 2018; 12(43):e6.

Cite this article as:

Madmoli Y, Ahmadi Y, Beigom Bigdeli Shamloo M, Rostami F, Khodadadi M, Raji M, Bandani-Tarashoki E. Spiritual Health and its Related Factors in Patients with Thalassemia Major. Med Ethics J. 2018; 12(43):e6.


Spiritual Health; Major Beta Thalassemia; Spirituality

Full Text:




Madmoli Y, Beiranvand R, Korkini N, Mashalchi H, Karimi H. Comparison of health-related quality of life in beta thalassemia major and healthy people in Dezful in 2015. IJNR 2016; 11(1): 9-16. [Persian]

Madmoli Y, Akhaghi Dezfuli S, Beiranvand R, Saberi Pour B, Azami M, Madmoli M. An epidemiological and clinical survey of patients with β-thalassemia in dezful in 2015. Iranian Journal of Epidemiology 2017;13(2): 145-152. [Persian]

Hosseini SH, Khani H, Khalilian A, Vahidshahi K. Psychological aspects in young adults with Beta-Thalassemia major, control group. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences 2007; 17(59): 51-60. [Persian]

Madmoli Y, Akhaghi Dezfuli SM, Adavi A, Maraaghi E, Heidari Soureshjani R, Madmoli M. The Effect of Orem Self-Care on Mental Health of Patients With Thalassemia Major. Journal of Clinical Nursing and Midwifery 2018; 7(2): 108-115. [Persian]

Tajvidi M, Zeighaini MS. The level of loneliness, hopelessness and self-esteem in major thalassemia adolescents. Scientific Journal of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization 2012; 9(1): 36-43. [Persian]

Allahbakhshian M, Jaffarpour M, Parvizy S, Haghani H. A Survey on relationship between spiritual wellbeing and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2010; 12(3): 29-33. [Persian]

Hadi N, Karami D, Montazeri A. Health-related quality of life in major thalassemic patients. Payesh 2009; 8(4): 387-393. [Persian]

Shams S, Hashemian K, Shafieabadi AE. The effectiveness of humor training method on hopelessness and social compatibility of the depressed students in Tehran. Journal of Modern Thoughts in Education 2008; 3(1): 81-99. [Persian]

Gharaibeh H, Amarneh BH, Zamzam SZ. The psychological burden of patients with beta thalassemia major in Syria. Pediatrics International 2009; 51(5): 630-636.

Majdi M, Marzabadi A. Quality of life in Iranian Beta-thalassemia major patients of‎ southern coastwise of the Caspian Sea. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences 2009; 2(4): 325-332.[Persian]

Naderi M, Reza Hormozi M, Ashrafi M, Emamdadi A. Evaluation of mental health and related factors among patients with beta-thalassemia major in South East of Iran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2012; 7(1): 47-51. [Persian]

Zeighami MS, Tajvidi M. Relationship between spiritual well-being with hopelessness and social skills in Beta-thalassemia major adolescents. Modern Care Journal 2011; 8(3): 116-124. [Persian]

Seyed FN, Rezaei M, Givari A, Hosseini F. Prayer and spiritual well-being in cancer patients. Payesh 2006; 5(4): 295-303. [Persian]

Aghayani CA, Talebian D, Tarkhourani H, Sedghi JH, Azarmi S, Fathi AA. The relationship between prayers and religious orientation with mental health. Journal of Behavioral Sciences 2008; 2(2): 149-156. [Persian]

Hajiesmaeili MR, Abbasi M, Safaiepour L, Fani M, Abdoljabari M, Hosseini SM, et al. Spiritual health concept in Iranian society: Evolutionary concept analysis and narrative review. Medical Ethics Journal 2016; 10(35): 77-115. [Persian]

Mazaheri M, Falahi KM, Sadat MS, Rahgozar M. Nursing attitude to spirituality and spiritual care. Payesh 2009; 8(1): 31-37. [Persian]

Daaleman TP, Frey BB. The Spirituality Index of Well-Being: a new instrument for health-related quality-of-life research. The Annals of Family Medicine 2004; 2(5): 499-503.

Debnam KJ, Holt CL, Clark EM, Roth DL, Foushee HR, Crowther M, et al. Spiritual health locus of control and health behaviors in African Americans. American Journal of Health Behavior 2012; 36(3): 360-372.

Mohammadi S, Tajvidi M, Ghazizadeh S. The relationship between spiritual well-being with quality of life and mental health of young adults with beta-thalassemia major. Scientific Journal of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization 2014; 11(2): 147-154.

Ghanbari Afra L, aheri A. Relationship of Anxiety, Stress, and Depression with Spiritual Health in Patients with Acute Coronary Artery Disease. J Educ Community Health 2017; 4(2): 28-34. [Persian]

Koutelekos J, Haliasos N. Depression and Thalassemia in children, adolescents and adults. Health Science Journal 2013; 7(3): 239-246.

Aghahoseini S, Rahmani A, Abdollahzadeh F, Kermani I. Spiritual health of cancer patients and its related factors. Ghom Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2009; 5(3): 7-12. [Persian]

Sadrollahi A, Khalili Z. Spiritual Well-being and associated factors among the elderly population in Kashan. Journal of Geriatric Nursing 2015; 1(2): 94-104. [Persian]

Stefanaki IN, Shea S, Linardakis M, Symvoulakis EK, Wynyard R, Lionis C. Exploring the association of sense of coherence, and spiritual and religious beliefs in a rural population group on the island of Crete, Greece. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 2014; 47(3): 207-230.

Kalkhoran MA, Karimollahi M. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study. Annals of General Psychiatry 2007; 6(1): 6-17.

Janbabaei G, Esmaeili R, Mosavinasab N, Rajbar M, Heydarifarf J. A survey of the role of spiritual health and its related factors in the patients with metastatic digestive cancer. Journal of Religion and Health 2014; 2(1): 9-14. [Persian]

Rezaei M, Seyedfatemi N, Hosseini F. Spiritual Well-being in Cancer Patients who Undergo Chemotherapy. Hayat 2009; 14 (3-4): 33-39. [Persian]

Haghani H, Borimnejad L. The self-efficacy of Adolescents with major thalassemia and its influencing factors in Bandar Abbas. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 2015; 1(3): 26-33. [Persian]

Adegbola M. Spirituality, self-efficacy and quality of life among adults with sickle cell disease. Southern Online Journal of Nursing Research 2011; 11(1): 1-16.

Alavi M, Molavi S, Molavi R. Spiritual well-being as predictor of health behavior efficacy in older patients of selected Medical University Hospitals. Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications 2017; 10(2): 197-201.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments

Creative Commons License

This journal is distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC 4.0. Copyright © 2017 Medical Ethics Journal. All rights reserved. All credits and honors to PKP for their OJS.

For Author | Online Submission | About Contact