The relationship between Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Social Orientation, and the Nurses’ Moral Behavior

Seyed Morteza Ghayour Baghbani, Narges Shojaei Kalate Bali, Hosein Chenarani, Jamal Ashoori

Abstract


884

Background and Aim: Nursing due to its demand to work under high pressure, work night shifts, deal with difficulties and other reasons has always been associated with stress and mental pressure, and its duties have always been intertwined with moral issues. Moral behavior is a series of socially acceptable actions and behaviors which are learned through reward and punishment. As a result, investigating the nurses’ psychological characteristics, and particularly their moral behavior is of great importance. Organizational commitment, job satisfaction and social orientation are the important psychological factors affecting moral behavior. Organizational commitment is an internal state that provides a kind of desire, need and requirement for employment in an organization. Committed people are a source of energy and power who proceed in the direction of the organization’s objectives. Organizational commitment has some potentially serious effects on the performance of the organization and can be a good and effective predictor of the effectiveness of the organization. Moreover, job satisfaction reflects the overall positive effect or people’s feelings towards their jobs. People with job satisfaction have positive feelings and attitudes toward their jobs. Social orientation, on the other hand, refers to the willingness to communicate with others and respect their rights, unwillingness to have a withdrawing behavior or antisocial personality, demonstration of effective interpersonal relationships, and observation of the social norms. These should lead to respecting the rights of other people, showing individual accountability for one’s social duties, and preventing anti-social behavior in the community. Due to the increasing advances in health care and its related technologies as well as increasing concerns associated with immoral behavior and its contributing factors, investigating the nurses’ moral behavior is of great significance. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between organizational commitment, job satisfaction and social orientation, and moral behavior of the nurses working in hospitals in Varamin.

Materials and Methods: The present research was a correlational descriptive study. The study population consisted of all nurses working in Shahid Mofatteh and 15-e-Khordad hospitals in the city of Varamin in 2015, out of whom 120 nurses were randomly selected based on the study inclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria were having physical and mental health and not having such stressful events in life as divorce, and death of loved ones in the past six months. Having obtained the ethics committee’s approval and authorization of Shahid Mofatteh and 15-e-Khordad hospital officials, the participants answered the questions regarding demographic variables, like age, sex, marital status, and education, and completed the standardized questionnaires of organizational commitment (Allen & Meyer, 1997), job satisfaction (Dant et al, 1966), social orientation (Harrison, 2001), and moral behavior (Swanson & Hill, 1993). The data were analyzed by the indicators of central tendency and dispersion to describe the distribution of variables and Pearson correlation and stepwise multivariate regression analysis to test the statistical assumptions using SPSS statistical software version 19.

Ethical Considerations: Prior to the study, approval of Shahid Mofatteh and 15-e-Khordad hospitals’ heads and officials were obtained. After presenting the research objectives, emphasizing the anonymity of questionnaires and confidentiality of personal information, and getting a written informed consent, the questionnaires were handed to the participants. Data collection was conducted by people of the same sex as nurses.

Findings: A total of 120 nurses (78 females and 42 males) with a mean and standard deviation of 32.67 ± 4.39 years participated in this study. Concerning marital status, 107 were married and 13 were single. In terms of education, 3 had associate’s degrees, 101 had bachelor's degree, and 16 had master's degrees. In this study, mean and standard deviations were 60.66 ± 13.50 for organizational commitment, 142.20 ± 28.52 for job satisfaction, 83.58 ± 19.38 for social orientation, and 53.67 ± 10.09 for moral behavior. The results of multivariate regression analysis for the assumptions confirmed the normality of the assumptions based on Kolmogorov- Smirnov, rejected the multicollinearity according to variance inflation factor, and rejected the correlation of the tailings based on Durbin Watson. Organizational commitment (r=0.571), job satisfaction (r=0.438), and social orientation (r=0.295) presented a significant positive relationship with the moral behavior of the nurses. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between organizational commitment and nurses’ job satisfaction, and also between job satisfaction and the nurses’ social orientation (P≤0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis model revealed that in the first model, organizational commitment could significantly predict 32.6 percent of the nurses’ moral behavioral changes; in the second model, organizational commitment and job satisfaction could significantly predict 44.7 percent of the nurses’ moral behavioral changes; and in the third model, organizational commitment, job satisfaction and social orientation could significantly predict 52.7 percent of the nurses’ moral behavioral changes. According to the standard beta of the variable, it can be stated that organizational commitment had a greater contribution than job satisfaction and social orientation in the predictions.

Conclusion: Considering the findings and the theoretical assumption, the results of the present study were in some aspects consistent with those of the previous studies. Noticing the positive significant relationship between the variables of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, social orientation and moral behavior of the nurses, as well as the ability of these variables in predicting the nurses’ significant moral behavior, it is recommended that planners improve the nurses’ organizational commitment, job satisfaction, social orientation through running appropriate workshops in order to promote the nurses’ moral behavior. Considering the fact that organizational commitment had a greater contribution than job satisfaction and social orientation in prediction of the nurses’ moral behavior, it is made clear that what plays a major role in nurses’ moral behavior is the extent to which people have a sense of internal tendency to, need for and commitment to their organization. It is further recommended that officials, by increasing their own knowledge of psychology, pay more attention to the signs of the variables influencing moral behavior and take some measures to expand the nurses’ moral behavior, accordingly.  

Please cite this article as:

Ghayour Baghbani SM, Shojaei Kalate Bali N, Chenarani H, Ashoori J. The Relationship between Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Social Orientation, and the Nurses’ Moral Behavior. Med Ethics J 2016; 10(37): 27-36.


Keywords


Organizational Commitment; Job Satisfaction; Social Orientation; Moral Behavior; Nursing

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21859/mej-103727

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