Designation and psychometric assessment of a comprehensive spiritual health questionnaire for Iranian populations

  • Parisa Amiri مرکز تحقیقات تعیین‌کننده‌های اجتماعی سلامت غدد درون‌ریز و مرکز تحقیقات پیشگیری و درمان چاقی، پژوهشکده علوم غدد درون ریز و متابولیسم، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.
  • Mahmoud Abbasi مرکز تحقیقات اخلاق و حقوق پزشکی، پژوهشکده علوم غدد درون‌ریز و متابولیسم، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.
  • Safura Gharibzadeh گروه آمار زیستی و اپیدمیولوژی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران و مرکز تحقیقات غدد درون ریز و متابولیسم، پژوهشکده علوم غدد درون‌ریز و متابولیسم، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.
  • Mohammad Asghari Gharib abadi مرکز تحقیقات پیشگیری از مصدومیت‌هاي ترافيكي جاده‌ای، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تبریز، آذربایجان شرقی، ایران.
  • Najmeh Hamzavi Zarghani مرکز تحقیقات تعیین‌کننده‌های اجتماعی سلامت غدد درون ریز و مرکز تحقیقات پیشگیری و درمان چاقی، پژوهشکده علوم غدد درون‌ریز و متابولیسم، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.
  • Fereydoon Azizi مرکز تحقیقات غدد درون‌ریز و متابولیسم، پژوهشکده علوم غدد درون‌ریز و متابولیسم، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران. (نویسنده مسؤول)
Keywords: Spiritual Health, Questionnaire, Validity, Reliability, Muslims, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Despite the considerable research documented regarding spiritual health through the last decades, there is still the lack of a comprehensive and acceptable definition for the term. Measuring spiritual health in Iranian populations initially requires a definition of spiritual health that meets the cultural, social and religious norms of our society. Hence designation and evaluation of an appropriate questionnaire to measure its conceptual constructs is essential. As one of the first efforts, this study aimed to explore the concept of spiritual health and to design and assess a comprehensive spiritual health questionnaire in an Iranian population.

Methods: In this  methodological cross-sectional study, a spiritual health questionnaire was developed based on  three constructs,  including “insight”, “tendency” and “behaviors” based on a review of Islamic literature approved by the spiritual health department of academy of medical sciences Islamic republic of Iran. Overall 506 individuals (64% females), aged ≥ 20 years, participated in the psychometric assessment process, were recruited from among residents of district 13 of Tehran. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were used to assess reliability. Face, content and construct validity were examined.

Results: Forty-eight items were perceived as essential, relevant and comprehendible by both the experts and the community. Content validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a six-factor model in the structure of developed items, which was optimized in a two factor model that encompassed 1- cognitive/emotional and 2- behavioral constructs. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated acceptable fits for the proposed models. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.70 for all scales and subscales, all of which demonstrated satisfactory test-retest reliability over two weeks.

Conclusion: Our results provide initial evidence that the much needed questionnaire developed is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring spiritual health in this urban Iranian population. Further research is suggested for different populations and regions in Iran.

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Published
2015-09-22
Section
Original/Research Article