The Mediating Role of Mediator of Self-compassion in the Relationship between Psychological Vulnerability and Attachment to God in Female Students Studying at in Karaj Islamic Azad University in 2016

Keywords: Attachment to God, Girl, Psychological vulnerability, Self-compassion, Student


For downloading the full-text of this article please click here.

Background and Objective: Psychological distress is one of the most common problems that students experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of mediator of self-interest compassion in the relationship between psychological vulnerability and attachment to God.

Methods: The present study is descriptive and correlational. The statistical population of the study included all female students studying at in Karaj Islamic Azad University in 1395. Using simple random sampling method, 280 people were calculated selected to participate in the study. The research related data were collected by using self-compassion questionnaire, short form of depression, anxiety and stress questionnaire, and attachment to God questionnaire. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression and The Baron and Kenny method was used to test the intermediate mediating effects. In this study, all the ethical considerations have been observed and no conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

Results: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between attachment to God with and self-compassion (P<0.05, r=0.61) and psychological vulnerability (P<0.05, r=-0/60). Also, attachment to God could explain 52 percent of the changes in psychological vulnerability alone, but self-compassion and attachment to God can explained 61 percent of the changes in psychological vulnerability.

Conclusion: The results of this research emphasize the need to recognize    the role of self-compassion and attachment to God in the reducing student's psychological vulnerability.For downloading the full-text of this article please click here.

Please cite this article as: BagheriPanah M, Golafroz M, Boloorsaz-Mashhadi H, Moayedimehr M, Khorooshi M. The Mediating Role of Mediator of Self-compassion in the Relationship between Psychological Vulnerability and Attachment to God in Female Students Studying at in Karaj Islamic Azad University in 2016. Journal of Pizhūhish dar dīn va salāmat. 2020;6(1):74-86.


McLennan JD. Video-conferencing Telehealth Linkage attempts to Schools to Facilitate Mental Health Consultation. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2018;27(2):137.

Voth Schrag RJ, Edmond TE. Intimate partner violence, trauma, and mental health need among female community college students. Journal of American college health. 2018;66(7):702-11.

HatamKhani S. The Relationship between Mindfulness Skills, Psychological Flexibility and Psychopathology Symptoms. Tehran, Iran: Tarbiat Modares University; 2010. (Full Text in Persian)

Neff KD. The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and identity. 2003;2(3):223-50.

Neff KD, Kirkpatrick KL, Rude SS. Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. Journal of research in personality. 2007;41(1):139-54.

Neff KD. The role of self-compassion in development: A healthier way to relate to oneself. Human development. 2009;52(4):211.

Peivastegar M, Besharat M, Pajouhinia S, Seifi M. Explanation of psychological vulnerability based on the attachment styles in students of mixed-state universities of Tehran. Knowl Res Appl Psychol. 2012;13(1):29-31. (Full Text in Persian)

Bitarafan L, Kazemi M, Yousefi Afrashte M. Relationship between styles of attachment to god and death anxiety resilience in the elderly. Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2018;12(4):446-57. (Full Text in Persian)

Desai S, Arias I, Thompson MP, Basile KC. Childhood victimization and subsequent adult revictimization assessed in a nationally representative sample of women and men. Violence and victims. 2002;17(6):639.

Salehi S. The Relation between Self-compassion with Intensity, Catastrophizig, and Self-efficacy of Pain and affect in Women with Musculoskeletal Pain. Anesthesiology and Pain. 2018;8(2):72-83. (Full Text in Persian)

Homan KJ. A mediation model linking attachment to God, self-compassion, and mental health. Mental Health, Religion & Culture. 2014;17(10):977-89.

Garmezy N. Stressors of childhood. In N. Garmezy & M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, coping, and development in children (pp. 43-84). New York: McGraw-Hill. 1983.

Eskandari H, Pajouhinia S, Abavisani Y. Explanation of Psychological Problems Based on Cognitive Flexibility and Self Differentiation. The Neuroscience Journal of Shefaye Khatam. 2016;4(3):18-27. (Full Text in Persian)

Joeng JR, Turner SL, Kim EY, Choi SA, Lee YJ, Kim JK. Insecure attachment and emotional distress: Fear of self-compassion and self-compassion as mediators. Personality and Individual Differences. 2017;112:6-11.

Zessin U, Dickhäuser O, Garbade S. The relationship between self‐compassion and well‐being: A meta‐analysis. Applied Psychology: Health and Well‐Being. 2015;7(3):340-64.

Kemper KJ, Mo X, Khayat R. Are mindfulness and self-compassion associated with sleep and resilience in health professionals? The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2015;21(8):496-503.

Ganji H. Mental Health. Tehran: Arashbaran publishing house; 2015. (Full Text in Persian)

Rostami M, Abdi M, Heidari H. Correlation of Childhood Maltreatment, Self-Compassion and Mental Health in Married People. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health. 2014;16(61):73-61. (Full Text in Persian)

Muris P. A protective factor against mental health problems in youths? A critical note on the assessment of self-compassion. Journal of child and family studies. 2016;25(5):1461-5.

Farnsworth JK, Mannon KA, Sewell KW, Connally ML, Murrell AR. Exploration of caregiver behavior on fear of emotion, spirituality, and self-compassion. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science. 2016;5(3):160-8.

Granqvist P, Kirkpatrick LA. Attachment and religious representations and behavior. In J. Cassidy & P. R. 2010.

Ainsworth MDS, Blehar MC, Waters E, Wall SN. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation: Psychology Press; 1978.

Refahi Z, Bahmani B, Nayeri A, Nayeri R. The relationship between attachment to God and identity styles with Psychological well-being in married

teachers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2015;174:1922-7.

Nayeri A, Refahi Z, Bahmani B. Comparing attachment to god and identity styles and psychological well-being in married teachers: With regard to demographic factors. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014;152:58-64. (Full Text in Persian)

Salazar LR. Exploring the relationship between compassion, closeness, trust, and social support in same-sex friendships. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being. 2015;3(1):15-29.

Zahed-Babelan A, Rezaei Jamaloei H, Sobhani-Herfati R. An investigation of the relationship between attachment to God and resilience with meaningful life among students. Knowledge and Research in Applied Psychology. 2012;13(49):75-85.

Knofczynski GT, Mundfrom D. Sample sizes when using multiple linear regression for prediction. Educational and psychological measurement. 2008;68(3):431-42.

Sahebi A, Asghari MJ, Salari R. Validation of depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) for an Iranian population. 2005. (Full Text in Persian)

Oliaei Z, Samani S, Fani H. Investigating the Validity and Reliability of Attachment Scale to God. Journal Management System. 2012;2(1):65-81. (Full Text in Persian)

Cheraghian H, Faskhodi BZ, Heidari N, Sharifi PY. Self-compassion as a relationship moderator between academic burnout and mental health in students. International Journal Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development. 2016;5(2):128-38. (Full Text in Persian)

Saeedi Z, Ghorbani N, Sarafraz MR, Sharifian MH. The Relationship between Self-Compassion, Self-esteem and regulation of self-conscious emotions. Research on Psychological Health, 6(3). 2012;6:1-9. (Full Text in Persian)

Rajabi G, Maghami E. Self-compassion as mediator between attachment dimensions with mental well-being: a path analysis model. Health Psychol. 2015;4(4):83-100. (Full Text in Persian)

Shabani R, Mahmodi G, Ghobari-Banab B, EmamiPour S, Sepahmansor M. Pishbini-ye Behzisti-ye Ravanshenakhti bar Asas-e Sabkhaye Delbastegi va Shafeghat be Khod dar Madaran-e DaneshAmoozan-e Dowre-ye Ebtedaei-ye Shahr-e Urmia. Zan va Motaleat Khanevadeh. 2015;8(27):73-94. (Full Text in Persian)

Raque-Bogdan TL, Ericson SK, Jackson J, Martin HM, Bryan NA. Attachment and mental and physical health: Self-compassion and mattering as mediators. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 2011;58(2):272.

Beck R. God as a secure base: Attachment to God and theological exploration. Journal of Psychology and

Theology. 2006;34(2):125-32.

Bradshaw M, Ellison CG, Marcum JP. Attachment to God, images of God, and psychological distress in a nationwide sample of Presbyterians. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. 2010;20(2):130-47.

Original Article