Background and Aim:
Professional socialization is the process of gaining and internalizing knowledge, skills, values,
attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of a specific profession. Through the process gradually, a sense of
belonging, and unique professional identity will develop. The aim of this study was to review the
barriers, conditions and facilitators of nurses' professional socialization.
Materials and Methods:
This is a review article. Electronic journals and databases such as CINAHL, Embase, Medline,
Scopus, ScienceDirect, MDConsult, OVID, Google Scholar was searched to find studies have been
investigated the various aspects of "professional socialization of nurses.
The results showed that the work environment and corporate culture, the gaps between theory and
practice in nursing and community's attitude toward nursing profession are effective factors in
nurses' professional socialization. Promote personal and professional capabilities, reform of
resources and organizational structure and training structure, are the strategies for improving nurse's
Among the factors involved in nurses' socialization, formal education system and teachers can have
the greatest impact positively or negatively on the professional growth and development of nurses.
Therefore, planning to facilitate and promote the professional socialization of nurses, with emphasis
on improving the education system and bridging the gap between theory and practice should be
Socialization; Nurse; Review
- Beck C T (2000) The experience of choosing nursing as a career. Journal of Nursing Education. 39 (7) 320-2.
- Bjorkstrom M E, Athlin E E and Johansson I S (2008) Nurses' development of professional self - from being a nursing student in a baccalaureate programme to an experienced nurse. Journal of clinical nursing. 17 (10) 1380-91.
- Blais K, Hayes J, Kozier B and Erb G (2006) Socialization to professional nursing roles. New Jersey, Prentice Hall.
- Brim D G (1996) Socialization Trough the Life Cycle. New York, Willy Co.
- Chitty K (2005) Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges. London, Guilford Press.
- Din-Mohammdi M, Jalali A and Peyrovi H (2014) [Professional and Extra-professional Factors and Conditions Affecting the Professional Socialization of Nursing Students: A Qualitative Study]. Journal of Orumieh Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery. 13 (1) 64-74. (Persian)
- Duchscher J B (2008) A Process of Becoming: The Stages of New Nursing Graduate Professional Role Transition. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing. 39 (10) 441-50.
- Gillespie M (2005) Student-teacher connection: a place of possibility. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 52 (2) 211-9.
- Gray M and Smith L N (1999) The professional socialization of diploma of higher education in nursing students (Project 2000): a longitudinal qualitative study. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 29 (3) 639-47.
- Greenwood J (1993) The Apparent Desensitization of Student Nurses during Their Professional Socialization - a Cognitive Perspective. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 18 (9) 1471-9.
- Howkins E J and Ewens A (1999) How students experience professional socialisation. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 36 (1) 41-9.
- Kozier B, Erb G L and Blais K (1997) Professional Nursing Practice Concepts and Perspectives. California Addison –Weshley.
- Mackintosh C (2006) Caring: The socialisation of pre-registration student nurses: A longitudinal
qualitative descriptive study. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 43 (8) 953-62.
- Melrose S, Miller J, Gordon K and Janzen K J (2012) Becoming Socialized into a New Professional Role: LPN to BN Student Nurses' Experiences with Legitimation. Nursing research and practice. 2012
- Nesler M S, Hanner M B, Melburg V and McGowan S (2001) Professional socialization of baccalaureate nursing students: can students in distance nursing programs become socialized? Journal of Nursing Education. 40 (7) 293-302.
- Page G. Professional socialization of valuation students: what the literature says. In: Professional socialization of valuation students: what the literature says. Proceedings 10th Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference. Year P:
- Price S L (2009) Becoming a nurse: a meta-study of early professional socialization and career choice in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 65 (1) 11-9.
- Ravani Poor M, Vanaki Z, Afshar L and Azemian A (2013) [Nursing Socialization Criteria: Experiences of Nursing Teachers]. Journal of Evidence-Based Care. 4 (10) 27-40. (Persian)
- Roberts D (2008) Learning in clinical practice: the importance of peers. Nursing Standards. 23 (12) 35-41.
- Seada A and Fathi Sleem W (2012) Professional socialization process and acquisition of professional nursing values among undergraduate nursing students. Journal of American Science. 8 (4) 678-83.
- Simpson I H (1967) Patterns of socialization into professions: The case of student nurses. Sociological Inquiry. 37 (1) 47-54.
- Tahmasebi S, Ashktorab T, Ebadi A and Alavi Majd H (2013) [Professional Socialization in Clinical nursing: A Phenomenological Study]. Journal of clinical nursing. 2 (3) 39-52. (Persian)
- Tahmasebi S, Ashktorab T, Ebadi A and Alavi Majd H (2014) [Professional Socialization in Nursing]. Journal of School of Nursing, Baghiatallah University of Medical Sciences. 15 (57) 41-50. (Persian)
- Ware S M (2008) Developing a self-concept of nurse in baccalaureate nursing students. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship. 5 Article5.- While A and Blackman C (1998) Reflections on nursing as a career choice. Journal of Nursing Management. 6 (4) 231-7.
- Wolf L E (2007). A Study of Socialization of Accelerated BSN Graduates Kent: Kent State University.
- Zinsmeister L B and Schafer D (2009) The exploration of the lived experience of the graduate nurse making the transition to registered nurse during the first year of practice. Journal of Nursing Staff Development. 25 (1) 28-34.