شاپا: 2322-5130

Abstract
Background and Aims: Hospital, considered as a complex organization with high accountability, plays an important role in the health care system. In the present study, based on Weisbord model, we carried out a comprehensive assessment of Imam Hussein hospital affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical
Sciences in 2015.
Materials and Methods: This study is considered as a descriptive and analytical research. Study population consists of hospital staff among which the numbers of participants were determined at the 0.05 error level using Cochran formula. In order to collect the required data standard organizational diagnosis
was used. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and ANOVAs tests using SPSS software version 21. Compliances with ethical standards were also considered.
Results: A total of 306 staff participated in the study. An overall average of studying 7 dimensions score was 4.14 showing the weakness of the hospital management in terms of inner organizational elements.
Sample T-test results showed hospital status was desirable in dimensions of goal setting, leadership and attitudes towards changes. Dimensions of “goal setting” and “reward” with the average scores of 3.88
and 4.85 were the strongest and the weakest, respectively. A significant relation was observed between educational level and scores given to rewards dimension.
Conclusion: Results indicated that the organizational status of this hospital is generally not desirable. Although, managing a hospital cannot be considered as managing other organizations, by adjusting the strengthening of organizational dimensions and reducing barriers and obstacles the conditions can be
improved.
Keywords: Hospital, Organizational Diagnosis, Assessment, Weisbord Model

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Removal of Ibuprofen from aqueous solutions by Ozonation process

Ali Oghazyan, Ahmadreza Yazdanbakhsh, Akbar Eslami, Anvar Asadi

, , 25 February 2017

Abstract
Background and Aims: Ibuprofen (IBU) is one of the most consumed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) widely used in musculoskeletal and analgesic treatments. This study set out with the aim of assessing the efficiency of conventional ozonation process in a semi-batch plug-flow reactor in order to remove IBU from
aqueous solutions.
Materials and Methods: A laboratory scale semi-batch plug-flow ozonation reactor was employed during the present study. Four variables including pH, dosage of ozone, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and initial Ibuprofen
concentration, which might affect the degradation of Ibuprofen, were taken into consideration. The IBU concentration was determined using HPLC.
Results: Working under optimal operating conditions (pH = 8, HRT = 60 min, C=5 mg/L and Ozone dose 2/5 g/h), about 59% IBU degradation was noticed. Results also revealed that the degradation of IBU well fitted with the firstorder
kinetics.
Conclusion: The operating variables of pH, dosage of ozone, initial Ibuprofen concentration, and HRT were optimized using a plug-flow reactor to improve contact between dissolved ozone and the drug. pH and HRT were the most affecting variables. Furthermore, a predictive model allowing us to predict the percentage of IBP degradation
as a function of pH and HRT under experimental conditions was obtained.
Keywords: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Ibuprofen, Ozonation, Hydraulic retention time

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Abstract
Background and Aims: Pre-pregnancy care is a set of interventions through prevention and treatment to identify and modify biomedical, behavioral and social hazards. The current study aimed to explain ideas of
women about reproductive age and the personnel of family health centers about barriers of pre-pregnancy
care coverage in the healthcare centers supervised by Iran University of Medical Sciences.
Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, 32 mothers and the personnel of family health unit (experts of midwifery and family heath) working in health centers affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences were interviewed both individually and in group. A purposeful sampling was exploited. Data were gathered through interviews and focused on group discussion with open questions until data saturation was reached and data were analyzed using conventional content analysis approach and based on the Graneheim and Landman’s model (2004). Before each interview, mothers were informed regarding the aim of research, interview style, freedom to leave the interview and the way interview content would be kept private.
Results: After analyzing the data, the perceived obstacles of pre-pregnancy care coverage were achieved in three main formats including: Organizational obstacles, communicative obstacles and personal obstacles.
Conclusions: Thorough explanation participants’ experiences, structural, communicative and personal factors were shown to be effective on pregnancy care coverage in healthcare centers supervised by Iran
University of Medical Sciences. Better quality services could be obtained by prioritizing and implementing proper interventions.
Keywords: Pre-pregnancy care, Barriers or obstacles, perceptions, Mothers’ health, women’s health

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Abstract
Background and Aims: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are among major causes of several diseases with serious consequences including a profound effect on sexual and reproductive health around the
world. Prevention is the most important strategy to deal with STIs. This study aims to determine the knowledge and attitude of female students regarding bacterial sexually transmitted diseases at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 430 female students enrolled in Paramedical courses at SBUM. A Cluster sampling method was employed to select participants. All students were assured of information confidentiality. Data were collected using a valid questionnaire
developed by the research team.
Results: Students aged 18 to 30 years with an average age of 22.29±3.042. The general level of knowledge and attitude was at a moderate level. Only 11.4% of students had good knowledge and about 14.65 percent of the respondents had appropriate attitude regarding the three bacterial STIs. The results showed that there was not a statistically significant difference between students, level of education or their course of
study with the score of their knowledge and attitude towards the studied STI (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: Considering inadequate level of knowledge and attitudes of students regarding STI, authorities
should pay more attention to provide educational programs for university students.
Keywords: Knowledge, attitude, bacterial sexually transmitted infection, students

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Evaluation of Health, Safety and Environment status using SWOT matrix to provide continuous improvement strategies: A case study in municipality of Qazvin

Javad Abbas Alimadadi, Alireza Haji Qasemkhan, Mohammad Hjartabar, Reza Gholamnia, Reza Khani Jazani, Reza Saeedi

, , 25 February 2017

Abstract
Background and aims: According to the identification of more than one hundred types of jobs in the municipalities, evaluation of adverse factors that each job face with them isn’t possible without systematic model of identifying hazards. In this study, weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats (SWOT) to the health, safety and environment (HSE) management was introduced. Based on the results obtained, the HSE situation in Qazvin municipality (12 units) was evaluated.
Materials and methods: Two tables concerning internal and external factors are used in the SWOT analysis. The sum of scores in both tables is in the range of 1 to 4, and the status is appraised as positive when the score is higher than 2.5. All necessary arrangements made well in advance. Ethical issues were also all considered in all stages of research.
Results: The scores obtained in the evaluation of internal and external factors were often less than 2.5. The mean scores of internal and external factors evaluation were 2.37 and 2.42, respectively. The highest score in internal factors was 2.95 belonging to Qazvin municipality's parks and green spaces. Also, the highest score of external factors was 3.1 belonging to the organization of transport and traffic administration of Qazvin municipality.
Conclusion: The HSE situation in half of Qazvin municipality's units was considered undesirable based on SWOT matrix (district 4); and therefore, they should adopt defensive strategies to improve their HSE status. Other organizations were in the shift (2 units) or diversification (4 units) strategies. The results of
present study revealed that SWOT analysis can be used as an effective management tool to determine the
status and management of HSE as well as continuous improvement strategies.
Keywords: HSE, Strategic management, External factors, Internal factors, SWOT matrix, Qazvin municipality

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Abstract
Background and Aims: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease and one of the most important endemic diseases in Iran. It is considered as the second most alarming parasitic disease next to malaria transmitted by arthropods. This disease is a health problem in more than 15 provinces of the country. Given that cutaneous leishmaniasis is the endemic disease in Hawizeh, the present study was aimed to investigate its epidemiology in this city.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical survey was performed on all confirmed leishmaniasis cases (totally 137 person) following up in Hawizeh district health care centers during 2014-15. Patients, general information such as age, sex, habitat, number and site of ulcer, as well as the month of incidence were registered and analyzed by Excel software. All ethical issues were also addressed.
Results: The results of the present survey indicate that the outbreak of the disease was 343 in 100,000. Furthermore, 65 cases out of the total study group (47.4%) were men and the remaining 72 people (52.6%) were women. About 70.8% of patients resided in urban areas, while 29.2% lived in rural areas. The most frequent age group was 1-10 years old (54%). Hands and feet and face were the most common lesion
(83.9%) and about 51.8% of the patients had one ulcer. Highest disease prevalence was observed in winter.
Conclusion: According to these results and the adverse effects of this disease, the implementation of proper planning to educate people and environment sanitation are thereby highly advocated.
Keywords: Cutaneouses leishmaniasis, Epidedmiological, Hawizhe.

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