The effect of education on knowledge and attitude towards the harmful effects of smoking among students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

Rahman Panahi, Ali Ramezankhani, Mehdi Rezaei, Mahmoud Tavousi, Malihe Pishvaei, Shamsaddin Niknami



Background and Aims: Considering the relatively high prevalence of smoking among students and the role of knowledge and attitude in smoking prevention, the present study aimed to determine the effect of education on knowledge and attitude towards the harmful effects of smoking among students.
Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental interventional study conducted in 2016 among 130 dormitory students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran (65 students in each intervention and control groups). Data gathering tool was a demographic and background characteristics questionnaire. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitude towards the harmfulness of smoking that was completed in two stages before and three months after the intervention. In this study, education was performed using Social Networks and educational messages were sent to the students of the intervention group in 6 sessions.
The collected data were analyzed through the proportional tests and SPSS software version 16. All stages of the study were conducted according to moral standards.
Results: There was no significant difference between demographic and background variables before the intervention and also the mean scores of knowledge and attitude towards the harmfulness of smoking in both groups (p > 0.05). Comparing two groups after the intervention showed that the mean scores of knowledge and attitude towards the harmfulness of smoking have changed significantly in experimental group compared to control group (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Social networking can be used in educational interventions to promote knowledge and attitude towards the harmful effects of smoking in students.

Keywords: education, knowledge, attitude, prevention, smoking, students

Full Text:



Rahimzadeh M, Rastegar H, Fazel Kalkhoran J. Prevalence and causes of tendency to cigarette and water pipe

smoking among male and female physical education students in University of Kurdistan. Journal of Health 2016;

(5):680-86 (In Persian).

Heydari GR, Ramezankhani A, Masjedi M. Evaluation of the smoking habit among male students of all faculties

of the Shahid Beheshti University and Shahid Beheshti Medical Science University during 2008. Research in

Medicine 2010; 34(2):132-36 (In Persian).

Mohammadi S, Ghajari H, Valizade R, Ghaderi N, Yousefi F, Taymoori P, et al. Predictors of smoking among the

secondary high school boy students based on the health belief model. International Journal of Preventive Medicine

; 8:24. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_264_16.

Khalilzad Behrozian S, Ahmadi E. The assesment of self-efficacy and the dimensions of quality of life on smokers

and nonsmokers. The Journal of Urmia University Medical Sciences 2013; 24(4):257-62 (In Persian).

Moradi G, Delavari A, Mehrabi S, Pooladi A, Bahram Rezaie M. Epidemiologic study of smoking among

population of 15 to 64 years old in Kurdistan province. Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical

Sciences 2007; 12(45):40-50 (In Persian).

Ebadi M, Vahdaninia MS, Azin SA, Aeinparast A, Omidvari S, Jahangiri K, et al. Prevalence of smoking: a studyof health from the viewpoint of the Iranian people. Payesh 2011; 10(3):365-72 (In Persian).

Moosazadeh M, Ziaaddini H, Mirzazadeh A, Ashrafi Asgarabad A, Haghdoost AA. Meta-analysis of smoking

prevalence in Iran. Addiction and Health 2013; 5:140-53.

Ua-Kit N, Phuphaibul R, Panitrat R, Loveland-Cherry C, Vorapongsathorn T. Cigarette smoking behavior among

Thai adolescents in Metropolitan Bangkok. Thai Journal of Nursing Research 2004; 8(4):245-312.

Morean ME, Camenga DR, Kong G, Cavallo DA, Schepis TS, Krishnan-Sarin S. Predictors of middle school

students’ interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in Connecticut.

Journal of Addiction Medicine 2014; 2:1-6.

Mokhtari Laleh N, Ghodsi H, Asiri S, Kazemnejad Leili E. Relationship between Health Belief Model and

smoking in male students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Guilan University medical Sciences

; 22(85):33-41 (In Persian).

Aziz K, Sharghi A. Norms of behavior factors affecting smoking in students. Journal of Faculty of Nursing and

Midwifery 2009; 11:1-7 (In Persian).

Rigotti NA, Moran SE, Wechsler H. US college students’ exposure to tobacco promotions: Prevalence and

association with tobacco use. American Journal of Public Health 2005; 95(1):138-44.

Divsalar K, Nakhaei N. Prevalence and correlates of Cigarette Smoking among students of two universities in

Kerman, Iran. Journal of Babol University of Medical Sciences 2008; 10(4):78-83 (In Persian).

Khami MR, Murtomaa H, Razeghi S, Virtanen JI. Smoking and its determinants among Iranian dental students.

Medical Principles and Practice 2010; 19(5):390-94.

Nazary AA, Ahmadi F, Vaismoradi M, Kaviani K, Arezomandi M, Faghihzadeh S. Smoking among male medical

sciences students in Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 2010; 16(2):156-61.

Taremian F, Bolhari J, Pairavi H, Ghazi Tabatabaei M. The prevalence of drug abuse among university students

in Tehran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology 2008; 13(4):335-42 (In Persian).

Ghodsi H, MokhtariLaleh N, Asiri SH, Kazemnezhad Leili E. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking

among male students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Holistic Nursing and Midwifery 2012;

(1):38-43 (In Persian).

Taraghijah S, Hamdieh M, Yaghoubi N. Predictive Factors of smoking and hookah in students of public

universities. Research in Medicine 2010; 34(3):249-56 (In Persian).

Bahrami F, Bahrami SH. Survey of knowledge, attitude and practice of university students of Kurdistan to

smoking. The Second Congress of National Development and Promotion of Education and Psychology, Sociology

and Social Sciences in Iran. Proceedings of Second Congress of National Development and Promotion of Education

and Psychology, Sociology and Social Sciences in Iran 2015 Feb. 9; Tehran, Iran (In Persian).

Panahi1 R, Ramezankhani A, Tavousi M, Osmani F, Niknami SH. Knowledge and attitude of dormitory students34. Rama Chandran L, Darmalyngam T. Health education a new approach. Delhi: Vikas Publishing House 1998.of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences about smoking in 2016. Health Education and Health Promotion

; 4(1):3-13.

Babaei Heidarabadi A, Ramezankhani A, Barekati H, Vejdani M, Shariatinejad K, Panahi R, et al. Prevalence

of substance abuse among dormitory students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction 2015; 4(2):e22350.

Haqwi Al, Tamim H, Asery A. Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Annals of Thoracic Medicine 2010; 5(3):145-48.

La Torre G, Kirch W, Bes-Rastrollo M, Ramos RM, Czaplicki M, Gualano MR, et al; GHPSS Collaborative

Group. Tobacco use among medical students in Europe: Results of a multicenter study using the Global Health

Professions Student Survey. Public Health 2012; 126(2):159-64.

Erdal G, Erdal H, Esengun K, Karakas G. Cigarette consumption habits and related factors among college

students in Turkey: A logit model analysis. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association 2015; 65(2):136-41.

Panahi R, Ramezankhani A, Tavousi M, Koosehloo A, Niknami SH. Relationship of health literacy with

knowledge and attitude toward the harms of cigarette smoking among university students. Journal of Education and

Community Health 2017; 3(4):38-44 (In Persian).

Mohmmadzade B, Hasanloo H, Zarei F, Khazaeipul M. Survey of knowledge, attitude and practice of students

of Medical Sciences University about smoking. Proceedings of Seventh National Congress on Health Education and

Health Promotion 2016 May. 3-4; Tehran, Iran (In Persian).

Panahi R, Niknami SH, Ramezankhani A, Tavousi M, Osmani F. Is There a Relationship between Low Health

Literacy and Smoking? Health Education and Health Promotion 2015; 3(3):43-52.

Baskerville NB, Azagba S, Norman C, McKeown K, Brown SK. Effect of a digital social media campaign on

young adult smoking cessation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2016; 18(3):351-60.

Woohyun Y, Jung HY, Eunj C. How social media influence college students’ smoking attitudes and Intentions?

Computers in Human Behavior 2016; 64:173-82.

Welch V, Petkovic J, Pardo PJ, Rader T, Tugwell P. Interactive social media interventions to promote health

equity: an overview of reviews. Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada 2016; 36(4):63–75.

Gharlipour Z, Hazavehei SMM, Moeini B, Nazari M, Moghimbeygi A. Effectiveness of educational program

on promotion of smoking preventive behaviors in adolescences. Health System Research 2013; 9(4):354-61 (In


Atabila A, Eleanor C. Effect of a smoking prevention program on smoking-related knowledge, refusal selfefficacy,

attitude, and intention of non-smoking adolescents. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 2013;


Rakhshani F, Esmaeili A, Charkazi A, Haftsavar M, Shahnazi H, Esmaeili AJ. Effect of education on smoking

prevention in students of Zahedan. Health System Research 2010; 6(2):267-75 (In Persian).

Heidari GR, Ramezankhani A, Hosseini M, Yusefifard M, Masjedi MR. Knowledge, attitude and practice of

male teachers in boys’ guild schools in Tehran about smoking. Payesh 2010; 9(4):355-61 (In Persian).

Cheraq Molaei L. Design of virtual social networks based education and its impact on students learn to make

realistic [dissertation]. School of Medicine: Tarbiat Moalem University 2004 (In Persian).


Khaleghi M. Evaluating the effect of educational intervention on health literacy through social networks to

promote quality of life for students [dissertation]. School of Medicine: Tarbiat Modares University 2017 (In Persian).

Baghiani Moghadam MH, Taheri G, Fallah Zadeh H, Parsa M. The effect of instructional designed SMS based

on Health Belief Model (HBM) on adoption of self-care behavior of patients with type II diabetes. Modern Care

Journal 2014; 11(1):10-18 (In Persian).

Aghamolaei T, Ebrahimi F, Abedini S, Rafati SH. The effect of education in the traditional way and using mobile

phone on the lifestyle of women referred to health centers in Bandar Abbas. Proceedings of Seventh National

Congress on Health Education and Health Promotion 2016 May. 3-4; Tehran, Iran (In Persian).

Jafari M, Pasdar Y, Rezaei M, Mehdizade H, Ashtarian H. The effect of nutrition education using blogs, group

- collaborative blogs and short messaging on lipids profiles and glucose in patients with type II diabetes. Medical

Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences 2013; 56(5):261-65 (In Persian).

Heidarnia AR, Barati M, Niknami SH, Allahverdipour H, Bashirian S. Effect of a web-based educational program

on prevention of tobacco smoking among male adolescents: An application of prototype willingness model. Journal

of Education and Community Health 2016; 3(1):1-11 (In Persian).


  • There are currently no refbacks.