Fluoride removal from drinking water using the combination of electro and chemical coagulation processes

Gity Kashi, Shahrzad Khoram nejadian, Niloofar Nasehi



Background and Aims: Fluoride is a toxic chemical for human. The present study was aimed to investigate fluoride removal from urban drinking water by the combination of batch electrochemical reactor, using copper-copper electrodes, and poly aluminum chloride (PAC) as chemical coagulant.
Materials and Methods: Fluoride contaminated drinking water samples were prepared and thence the effect of different variables including pH (4.2-9), initial fluoride concentration (3-9 mg/L), contact time (10-40 min), PAC concentration (10-50 mg/L), distance between electrodes (1.5 cm), and current density (1.5-4.5 mW/cm2) on fluoride removal efficiency was studied.
Results: The experimental results have shown that the maximum removal efficiency of 87.0% was obtained in the electrochemical reactor for 9 mg F-/L at 1.5 cm distance between electrodes, current density of 4.5 mA/cm2, electrolysis time of 40 min and pH 7.5. Similarly, the maximum fluoride removal (100%) was obtained when the operating conditions were set as electrode distance 1.5 cm, current density 3 mA/cm2, electrolysis time 40 min and pH 7.5. Incorporating PAC in electrochemical reactor resulted in a very high fluoride removal (over 99%) from high-fluoride water (9 mg/L) when distance between electrodes, current density, contact time, and pH were 1.5 cm, 4.5 mA/cm2, 10 min and 7.5, respectively. At a contact time of 10 min, pH 7.5 and 10 mg PAC/L, the enhanced coagulation achieved a complete fluoride removal (100%) when the distance between electrodes and current density were respectively 1.5 cm and 4.5 mA/cm2.
Conclusion: It has been found that fluoride removal from high-fluoride contaminated water in an electrochemical batch reactor is practicable. The enhanced coagulation process with copper-copper electrodes and PAC was more effective for fluoride removal as compared with the use of batch electrochemical reactor solely.
Key words: Copper electrode, drinking water, electrochemical, Fluoride, poly aluminum chloride.

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