Perceived Social Support from Family and Friends and Early Maladaptive Schemas among Female and Male Delinquent and Non-delinquent Adolescents

  • Anahita khodabakhshi koolaee1 Assistant Professor, Department of Counseling, institute of higher education Khatam, Tehran, Iran.
  • Fatemeh Alizadeh MA. in Family Counseling, Faculty of Education and Counseling, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
  • Ladan Mansoor MA in Family Counseling, Department of Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Education and Counseling, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
  • Taghi Pour-Ebrahim Assistant Professor, Department of Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Education and Counseling, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
  • Mohammad-Reza Falsafinejad Associate Professor, Department of Assessment and Measurement, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.
Keywords: Perceived social support, Early maladaptive schemas, Delinquent, Adolescents


Background and Objective: Adolescence, period of transition from childhood to adulthood, is time with changes in social, psychological, behavioral, and physical situations. These changes combined with the cultural, social and family backgrounds’ adolescents, can lead to social problems such as social deviations (delinquency).This study aims to compare the components of perceived social support and early maladaptive schemas in adolescents (male and female) delinquent and non-delinquent.

Materials and Methods: This research was based on comparative and causal method. In this research, 100 delinquent adolescents (80 male and 20 female) using convenience sampling method and 100 non-delinquent adolescents (80 male and 20 female) using Cluster sampling method were selected. They completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) questionnaires and Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF). Data analysis was performed via descriptive statistics (Mean and SD.) and analytic methods such as independent T-test.

Results: Delinquent adolescents had higher mean of early maladaptive schemas and instead had lower level of social support. In addition, delinquent boys had higher early maladaptive schemas mean compared to non-delinquent boys and they had different levels of social support. There was a significant difference in perceived social support between delinquent and non-delinquent girls. Also, there was a significant difference between early maladaptive schemas of delinquent and non-delinquent girls.              

Conclusion: The findings showed the importance of providing background for strengthening of social support. Identification of early maladaptive schemas as patterns of emotional and cognitive damage in adolescence can be useful to provide appropriate psychological services to improve the quality of life and increased health-related behaviors of delinquent individual.


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Original Research Article