Nutritional Behaviors Pattern of High School Girls in North of Tehran

Shahnam Arshi, Bita Ghanbari, Kambiz Nemati, Yalda Soleiman Ekhtiari, Sharif Torkaman-nejad, Ali-Asghar Kolahi



Background and Objective: Healthy eating in adolescent girls has a crucial role in normal growth and reducing the incidence of chronic disease related to nutrition in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine high school girl's eating behaviors in north of Tehran.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 722 female students who were selected randomly from public high schools in four districts of Tehran participated. Demographic variables and nutritional status were evaluated using systematic interviews with them by health professionals. Anthropometric parameters were also assessed.

Results: Most girls (42.4%) had a normal BMI. The mean (SD) of daily consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products were 2 (1.1), 1.8 (1), 1.9 (1.07) servings, respectively. The mean (SD) of weekly intake of red meat, poultry, fish, eggs and beans were 3.08 (2), 3.15 (2.9), 0.95 (0.9), 2.6 (2.9) and 2.2 (1.2) times, respectively. The mean (SD) frequency of eating breakfast was 4.9 (2.6) times per week. 16.9% of girls never consumed fast foods. Girls who do not consume salty snacks and fast foods per week, had significantly normal BMI (p<0.05). Low-fat milk consumption, daily consumption breakfast and non consumption of fruits were significantly associated with social status (p<0.05). Do not eating breakfast had significant association with BMI (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The consumption of major food groups in this study was lower than the recommended amounts. Further research is needed to determine enabling and reinforcing factors to healthy eating behaviors. Also, improvement attitudes and empowerment of adolescent girls to adopt healthy eating behaviors can be effective


Nutrition; Adolescents; Female students; Nutritional behaviors

Full Text:




Ambrosini GL, Emmett PM, Northstone K, Jebb SA. Tracking a dietary pattern associated with increased adiposity in childhood and adolescence Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(2):458-65.

Seidler T, Ksiazek J, Sobczak A. Determining levels of mineral consumption from foodstuff sources in the daily diets of adolescent students living in Kamień Pomorski. A pilot study. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2013;64(4):309-15.

Mikki N, Abdul-Rahim HF, Awartani F, Holmboe-Qttesen G. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of stunting, underweight, and overweight among Palestinian school adolescents (13-15 years) in two major governorates in the West Bank. BMC Public Health. 2009;9(485): 1-12.

Dietary habit. Alavi M, Eftekhari MB, Noot R, Rafinejad J, Chinekesh A. Dietary habits among adolescent girls and their association with parental educational levels. Glob J Health Sci. 2013;5(5):202-6.

Maddah M, Nikooyeh B. Obesity among Iranian adolescent girls: location of residence and parental obesity. J Health Popul Nutr. 2010;28(1):61-6.

Namakin K. Sharifzadeh G. Majnone H. Firouzi F. Latifi M. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Students of Deprived Areas in South Khorasan. Knowledge & Health 2011;6(2):38-42. (Full Text in Persian)

World Health Organization. Noncommunicable Diseases (NCD) Country Profiles 2014.

World Health Organization. Promoting a healthy diet for the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: user-friendly guide. World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean;2012.

Hollingshead, August B. (1957). Two factor index of social position. Unpublished manuscript. Department of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

Kelishadi R, Ardalan G, Gheiratmand R, Majdzadeh R, Hosseini M, Gouya MM, et al. Thinness, overweight and obesity in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents: CASPIAN Study. Child Care Health Dev. 2008;34:44–54.

Kelishadi R, Haghdoost AA, Sadeghirad B, Khajehkazemi R. Trend in the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Iranian children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition. 2014;30(4):393-400.

Best C, Neufingerl N, van Geel L, van den Briel T, Osendarp S. The nutritional status of school-aged children: why should we care? Food Nutr Bull. 2010;31(3):400-17.

Esteghamati A, Noshad S, Nazeri A, Khalilzadeh O, Khalili M, Nakhjavani M. Patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption among Iranian adults: a SuRFNCD-2007 study. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(1):177-81.

Kelishadi, R., Ardalan, G., Gheiratmand R., Sheikholeslam. Majdzadeh, S.R. Delavari, A.R., M.D, Monazzam M.M. Ziaee, V., Barakati, S.H. and Heshmat R. Do the dietary habits of our community warrant health of children and adolescents now and in future?CASPIAN Study. Iranian Journal of Pediatric.2005;15(2):97-109. (Full Text in Persian)

Bashour, H.N., 2004. Survey of dietary habits of in-school adolescents in Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 10(6), PP. 853-682.

Akman M, Akan H, Izbirak G, Tanriöver Ö, Tilev SM, Yildiz A, Tektaş S, Vitrinel A, Hayran O. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey. Nutr J. 2010;9:67.

Allafi A, Al-Haifi AR, Al-Fayez MA, Al-Athari BI, Al-Ajmi FA, Al-Hazzaa HM, Musaiger AO, Ahmed F. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among Kuwaiti adolescents: gender differences. Public Health Nutr. 2014;17(9):2045-52.

Parker CE, Vivian WJ, Oddy WH, Beilin LJ, Mori TA, O'Sullivan TA. Changes in dairy food and nutrient intakes in Australian adolescents. Nutrients. 2012;4(12):1794-811.

Bruening M, Eisenberg M, MacLehose R, Nanney MS, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Relationship between adolescents' and their friends' eating behaviors: breakfast, fruit, vegetable, whole-grain, and dairy intake. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(10):1608-13.

Ansari H, Farajzadegan Z, Hajigholami A, Paknahad Z. A randomized field trial for the primary prevention of osteoporosis among adolescent females: Comparison of two methods, mother centered and daughter centered. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(8):746-52.

St-Jules DE, Watters CA, Novotny R. Estimation of fish intake in Asian and white female adolescents, and association with 2-year changes in body fatness and body fat distribution: the female adolescent maturation study. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114(4):543-51.

Sugiyama S, Okuda M, Sasaki S, Kunitsugu I, Hobara T. Breakfast habits among adolescents and their association with daily energy and fish, vegetable, and fruit intake: a community-based cross-sectional study. Environ Health Prev Med.2012;17(5):408-14.

Savva SC, Kafatos A. Is red meat required for the prevention of iron deficiency among children and adolescents? Curr Pediatr Rev. 2014;10(3):177-83.

Palenzuela Paniagua SM, Pérez Milena A, Pérula de Torres LA, Fernández García JA, Maldonado Alconada J. [Food consumption patterns among adolescents]. An Sist Sanit Navar. 2014;37(1):47-58.

Azadbakht L,Mirmiran P,Momenan AA,Azizi F.Assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of intermediate and high school students in District 13 of Tehran regarding healthy nutrition. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism2005; 13(61): 409-16. (Full Text in Persian)

Samuelson G. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents over Europe. An overview of current studies in the Nordic countries. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54 Suppl 1:S21-8.

Gajre NS, Fernandez S, Balakrishna N, Vazir S. Breakfast eating habit and its influence on attention-concentration, immediate memory and school achievement. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45(10):824-8.

Laska MN, Murray DM, Lytle LA, Harnack LJ. Longitudinal associations between key dietary behaviors and weight gain over time: transitions through the adolescent years. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20(1):118-25.

Seo HS, Lee SK, Nam S. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors. Nutr Res Pract. 2011;5(2):169-78.

Larson NI, Neumark-Sztainer DR, Story MT, Wall MM, Harnack LJ, Eisenberg ME. Fast food intake: longitudinal trends during the transition to young adulthood and correlates of intake. J Adolesc Health. 2008;43(1):79-86.

Payab M, Kelishadi R, Qorbani M, Motlagh ME, Ranjbar SH, Ardalan G, Zahedi H, Chinian M, Asayesh H, Larijani B, Heshmat R. Association of junk food consumption with high blood pressure and obesity in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV Study. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2014. pii: S0021-7557(14)00157-0.

Slining MM, Mathias KC, Popkin BM. Trends in food and beverage sources among US children and adolescents: 1989-2010. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113(12):1683-94.

Delvarian-Zadeh M. Khosravi A. Sadat Taghavi N. Bolbol-Haghighi N. Sadeghian F. Khatibi. Nutritional MR. Evaluation of Adolescent Middle School Girls in Shahroud. Knowledge & Health 2012;7(1):14-19. (Full Text in Persian)

Hallström L, Vereecken CA, Ruiz JR, Patterson E, Gilbert CC, Catasta G, Díaz LE, Gómez-Martínez S, González Gross M, Gottrand F, Hegyi A, Lehoux C, Mouratidou T, Widham K, Aström A, Moreno LA, Sjöström M. Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study. Appetite. 2011;56(3):649-57.

Pouraram H, Abtahi H, Djazayeri A, Eshraghian MR, Khodadadi E. Dietary pattern of adolescent girls in relation to socio-economic factors; A comparison between North and South Tehran. Journal of Paramedical Sciences (JPS).2013;4(4):4-8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.