The Role of Interpersonal Forgiveness Components in Prediction of Psychological Well-being in High School Students of Tabriz

Omid Ebrahimi, Touraj Hashemi, Delaram Mohammadi



Background and Objectives: Psychological well-being is a concept that discussed in Positive Psychology.
Reconnaissance the factors affecting it, is one of the favorite themes of psychological research today. This
research aim was study the role of interpersonal forgiveness (Control resentment, realistic understanding, and
control of revenge) in predicting students’ psychological well-being.
Material and Methods: This study was descriptive and correlation. In this regard, a sample of 366 students was
selected according to multi-stage cluster sampling among high schools of Tabriz city. They filed Psychological
well-being of Ryff and interpersonal forgiveness scale. The data was analyzed by the means of statistical
methods of Pearson correlation and standard multiple regression.
Results: The mean (SD) of age participants was 17.3 (0.8) and their social economic were intermediate. The
mean (SD) of pain control was 14.2 (3.5) (r=0.158), realistic understanding 18.8 (3.2) (r=0.326) and revenge
control 25.5 (3.7) (r=0.157) and there was a signifiant and positive relation with psychological well-being
75 (9.9), (P<0.05). Furthermore realistic understanding could predict psychological well-being signifiantly.
Conclusion: The study showed that people who are realistic to understand the terms effective the error and
characteristics fallibility of human. They have higher psychological well-being.


Psychological well-being, Forgiveness, Realistic understanding, Pain control, Revenge control

Full Text:




Shojaee A, Soleymani E. The Effectiveness of Spiritual Intelligence Training on Psychological Well-being of Students

Covered by the Imam Khomeini Relief Committee. Journal of School Psychology. 2015;4(1):156-64. (Full Text in Persian).

Arabgol F, Mahmoudi Gharaei J, Shoshtari M. The Effect of Education Life Skills on Performance Students in Fourth

Grade. Advances in Cognitive Science. 2005;7(3):172-80. (Full Text in Persian).

Cuner-Kucukkaya P, Isik I. Predictors of Psychiatric Symptom Scores in a Sample of Turkish High School Students.

Nurs Health Sci. 2010;12(4):429-36.

Keyes CLM, Shmotkin D, Ryff C-D. Optimizing Well-being: the Empirical Encounter of Two Traditions. J Perso and

Soci Psych. 2002;82:1007-22.

Heiman T, BergerO. Parents of Children with Asperger Syndrome or with Learning Disabilities: Family Enviorment

and Social Support. Research in Developmental Disability. 2008;29:289-300.

Ghafoori S, Mashhadi A , Hasan Abadi H. The Effectiveness of Spiritual Psychotherapy Based on Forgiveness in

Order to Increase Marital Satisfaction and Prevent Marital Conflcts of Couples in the City of Mashhad. Journal of

Fundamentals of Mental Health. 2013;15(4):45-57. (Full Text in Persian).

Fincham F-D, Beach S-H, Davila J. Longitudinal Relations between Forgiveness and Conflct Resolution in Marriage,

Journal of Family Psychology. 2007;21(3):542-545.

Mc Collough M-E, Bellah C-G, Kilpatrick S, Johnson J-l. Vengefulness: Relationships with Forgiveness, Rumination,

Well-being and the Big Five. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2001;27:601610-.

Enright R, Fitzgibbons R. Helping Clients Forgive: An Empirical Guide for Resolving Anger and Restoring Hope.

st ed. Washington: American Psychological Association. 2000;2:11-57.

Ehteshamzadeh P, Ahadi H, Enayati M-S, Heidari A. Construct and Validation of A Scale for Measuring Interpersonal

Forgiveness. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology.2011;16(4):443-55. (Full Text in Persian).

Lavafpour Nouri F, Zahrakar K, Azadhoush Fatideh Z. Effectiveness of A Process-based Forgiveness Intervention in

Reducing Revenge and Avoidance Motivations among Middle School Male Students. Journal of School Psychology.

;3(2):253-266. (Full Text in Persian).

Khodabakhsh M-R, Kiani F. Investigating the Role of Forgiveness in Health and Psychological Wellbeing of Students.

J Health Syst Res. 2013;9(10):1050-61. (Full Text in Persian).

Saffarinia M, Mohammadi N, Afshar H. The Role of Interpersonal Forgiveness in Resilience and Severity of Pain in

Chronic Pain Patients. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, 2016;18(4):9-212. (Full Text in Persian).

Bakiyan M-J, Pajoohiniya S-h, Rezazade B. Effectiveness of Empathy Training on Improving Relations between Their

Personal and Emotional Adjustment of Students with ADHD Symptoms. Journal of School Psychology, 2013;2(2): 6-28.

(Full Text in Persian).

Young J-D. Psychometric and Experimental Investigation of Impulsivity, Rumination, Revenge, and Forgiveness,

Submitted to the Graduate School of Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan in Partial Fulfilment of the

Requirements for the Degree of P.h.d. 2011.

Aghayosef A, Kharbu A, Hatami H-R. The Role of Rumination on Psychological Well-being and Anxiety the

Spouses' Cancer Patients. Health Psychology. 2015;4(14):79- 97. (Full Text in Persian).

Pourmohseni Koluri F. The Impact of Rumination and Worry on Sleep Disturbance. Daneshvar Medicine, 2014; 21(108):

-12. (Full Text in Persian).

Rijavec M, Jurčec L. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Forgiveness and Depression/Happiness.

Psihologijske Teme, 2010;19(1):189-202 .

Maltby J, Macaskill A, Day l. Failure to Forgive Self and Others. Personality and Individual Differences 2001;29: 1-6.

Zandipour T. Shahdokht A, Nahidpour F. A Study on the Relationship between Forgiveness, Personality Traits,

Mental Health in Couples Who Referred to Hygiene Centers of Gachsaran. Journal - Research Women and Society,

;7(2):1-19. (Full Text in Persian).

Hamidipour R, Sanae Zaker B, Nazari A-M, Farahani M-N. The Effect of Group Therapy on Marital Satisfaction

Based on Forgiveness. Social Studies-psychological Women, 2011;8(4):49-73. (Full Text in Persian).

Zakiee A, Khodadadi K, Alikhani M, Rostami S, Karami J. The Relationship between Lfe Skills and Personality

Traits with Forgiveness Marital among Women in Kermanshah. Woman and Family Studies. 2010;10;75-91.

(Full Text in Persian).

Khanjani M, Shahidi S-h, Fath-Abadi J, Mazaheri M-A, Shokri O. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of

the Ryff’s Scale of Psychological Well-being, Short form (18-item) among Male and Female Students. Journal of

Thought & Behavior in Clinical Psychology, 2014; 8(32); 26-37. (Full Text in Persian).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.