Personal, Familial, and Social Risk and Protective Factors of Tendency towards Substance Use among Students

  • Morteza Jahanshahloo Master of Clinical Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University of Saveh, Iran
  • Shahram Mohammadkhani Associate Professor of Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
  • Hamid Amiri Ph.D. Student of Clinical Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Afagh Fakhari Master of Clinical Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Sepideh Hoseini Master of Clinical Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran
Keywords: Substance Use, Personal factors, Familial Factors, Social Factors


Background and Objective: University students are among vulnerable groups to tendency towards substance use. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the role of personal, familial, and social risk and protective factors in the prediction of tendency to this behavior among students.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was carried out on 431 students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences who were selected by convenience sampling. Data were collected by Risk and Protective Factors Inventory (RPFI) and Youth Risk Taking Scale (YRTS) and then, were analyzed by Pearson correlation method and stepwise multivariate regression.

Results: Data analysis using Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed significant relationships between personal (e.g. attitude towards substance use and tendency to drug use; r=0.6, P<0.01), familial (e.g. parent attitude towards substance and tendency towards smoking cigarettes; r=0.2, P<0.05), and social (e.g. perceived accessibility and tendency towards alcohol; r=0.4, P<0.01) factors with tendency to substance use. Moreover, the results of stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that personal factors (i.e. attitude towards substance use, sensation seeking, and impulsivity), social factors (i.e. friends’ substance use and perceived accessibility), and familial factors (i.e. family monitoring and parents’ attitude towards substance use) were the best predictors of tendency towards substance use in students, respectively.

Conclusion: In conclusion, current results indicated that a series of individual, familial, and social factors affect tendency towards substance use among students. Accordingly, identifying vulnerable students using suitable screening tests and providing them with primary prevention programs is of the utmost importance.


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Original Research Article