شاپا: 2345-2803

دوره 4 شماره 12 (2014)

Relationship between spiritual leadership and job motivation among teachers of Ilam Payame Noor University

Jamil Sadeghifar, Masoumeh Fazeli, Fatemeh Keramatmanesh, Zahra Tolideh, Seyed Mahmoud Mousavi

مجله علمی- پژوهشی اخلاق زیستی, دوره 4 شماره 12 (2014), 29 September 2016 , صفحه 31-47
https://doi.org/10.22037/bj.v4i12.14170

Background and objective: Developing of job motivation in teachers with efficient manner and commensurate with the educational system is considered one of the requirement for growth and excellence in students. The realization of this concept, especially in the higher education system, which is considered one of the most important areas of sustainable development is twice This study has been done with aims to determine the relationship between spiritual leadership and job motivation among Ilam Payame Noor teachers.

Materials and Method: This is a correlation study that conducted among teachers of Ilam Payame Noor University in 2012. Numbers of 120 teachers were selected Based on stratify random sampling. Data collected by standard spiritual leadership questionnaire (SL)"Fray et al" and job motivation "Neobachir". Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation, ANOVA and t-test.

Results: The Pearson correlation test were showed a significant relationship between job motivation and spiritual dimensions of leadership (p<0.05). Independent t-test reveals significant relationship between gender and faith to work (P=0.042). Between the work experience with job motivation and organizational membership revealed a significant relationship in ANOVA (p<0.05).

Conclusion: According to the results, developing of spiritual leadership behaviors can have a positive effect on job motivation of teachers. Recommended infrastructure component for creation and institutionalization of spiritual leadership, motivation and academic teachers work as a team is to strengthen knowledge.

Introduction:  In recent studies related to organization, the concept of organizational citizenship  behavior  has  attracted  the  attention  of  many  researchers  and  managers.  Observing of Organizational justice  is  also  an  important  variable  that  helps  to  increase  the  effectiveness  of organization . This study aimed to determine correlation between Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Organizational justice of staff at Deputy of Research and Technology of Ministry of Health & eduvation.

Materials  and  Methods:  This  study  is  a  descriptive-correlational  study that  has  taken place  among  150  staffs in Iranian  Deputy of Research and Technology of Ministry of Health & eduvation.Data  gathering  instrument  was  a  valid  and  reliable  questionnaire  that  was consists  of  two  parts:  demographic  information,  "Organizational  Citizenship  Behavior" questionnaire,  in  five  dimensions:  conscience,  altruism,  virtue-orienting,  magnanimity  and courtesy  and  "Organizational Justice"  questionnaire.  Collected data were analyzed by using SPSS.

Findings:  Pearson test showed significant correlation (P<0.05) between citizenship behavior and Organizational justice of employees of Deputy of Research and Technology of Ministry of Health & eduvation.

Conclusion: According to the results and importance of Organizational Justice in increasing organizational citizenship behavior of Deputy Staff, the most critical institution, it is suggested that managers try to improve organizations citizenship behavior by observing of Organizational justice in their organization staff.

Analysis of the relationship between distributions of health sector inputs and health outcomes in Iran; using Gini coefficient

Mahmood Abbasi, Mojtaba Hasoumi, Efat Mohamadi, Heshmatollah Asadi

مجله علمی- پژوهشی اخلاق زیستی, دوره 4 شماره 12 (2014), 29 September 2016 , صفحه 65-79
https://doi.org/10.22037/bj.v4i12.14173

Introduction: The concept of justice is one of the important criteria in the distribution of resources and access to health services. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the distribution of health inputs and health outcomes in the health sector in Iran (2000 – 2008)

Methods: This descriptive-analytical study is retrospective. STATA software was used to calculate the Gini coefficient for each of the variables (general practitioners and specialists, nurses and beds). We also used STATA software to determine the correlation between each of the variables and health status (mortality and maternal mortality).

Results: Gini coefficient for Nurses has declined over the studied years, while it has not declined for hospital beds, and it has even increased for physicians. Each Gini coefficient was separately analyzed to determine the correlation of them with child and maternal mortality. There was only a significant relationship between Gini coefficient of nurses and children mortality (P = 0.009) and there was an adverse significant relationship between the Gini coefficient of physicians and children mortality (P = 0.03).

Conclusion: There cannot be a firm reason for the improvements in health indicators as a result of the improvements of equity in access to physicians, nurses and hospital beds; so the improvements of these indicators can be a result of improvements in science and technology, human force skills and also increases of public awareness in health fields.

Quality and Frequency of Human Fellow Voice used in Doctor-Patient Interaction (One Qualitative Study in Clinical Counseling)

Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Mohammad Taghi Iman, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

مجله علمی- پژوهشی اخلاق زیستی, دوره 4 شماره 12 (2014), 29 September 2016 , صفحه 101-129
https://doi.org/10.22037/bj.v4i12.14175

Doctor- patient interaction in clinical counseling includes different voices that all of it isn’t in related to diagnostic and therapeutic problems, necessarily. This voices that are unrelated to diagnosis and treatment, leastwise have two important functions that are: contributing to the continuing conversation between phsician and patient, and indirect impact on the diagnosis and treatment. On of the voice that is unrelated to treatment and used with physician is Human Fellow Voice which refers to empathy's dimension of doctor to the patient. This research explored the concepts and propositions of Human Fellow Voice were used with physicians in 33 clinical counseling at Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz, with descriptive- analytical approach based on conversation analysis. Results of study shows that range using of words and propositions in related to Human Fellow Voice with physicians are 610 items which 3/30% of total conversations (physicians and patients) and 5/50% of the words and propositions that used with physicians. Range of words and propositions used are: using of facilitating the telling of patients’ stories 298 items; assisting the telling of patients’ stories 104 items; creating empathy with the patient 20 items; showing special attentiveness to patients’ stories 121 items; and asking questions unrelated to the patient’s health 6 items. Also, about the particular context of research (Iranian society) using of specific concepts was 40 items, and using of valuable concepts was 21 items. Although using of Human Fellow Voice by physicians is appropriate, but the overall shape of conversations is based on asymmetrical relation between physicians and patients. Because this asymmetrical relationship is a major obstacle in clinical counseling, the medical education system in Iran is necessary should focus more on semmetric interaction and communication.

Quran, Nature and its rights from the perspective of both Sunni and Shiite jurisprudence interpreting

Mostafa Rajabi Bagherabad

مجله علمی- پژوهشی اخلاق زیستی, دوره 4 شماره 12 (2014), 29 September 2016 , صفحه 11-29
https://doi.org/10.22037/bj.v4i12.14168

Nature is organized of Elements of Nature, Creatures - Plants and Animals- and balancing biological relationships. God has granted this rich investor to human in order to all people and creatures exploit from it and try to constructing and developing the Earth and it stays as a reasonable habitat for all creatures. So right to using Nature is an important example of human rights. Descriptive and normative teachings of Quran emphasis on the protection of nature and natural resources and ecological balance of any aggression, violence and corruption. Accordingly any abuses and corruption to nature is called sin and will lead to punishment in Hereafter and responsibility in the world. In this article, the important elements are introduced as the Quran comments with Jurisprudential interpretations interpretive method in Shias and Sunnis, emphasis on Ravandi & Qortabi exegesis. In this interpretation, also emphasis on Human & Nature's relations, according to Islamic laws, Ethical & Civil liability and Criminal responsibility will be proved.

Legal challenges of medical tourism

Nazanin Abualhasani

مجله علمی- پژوهشی اخلاق زیستی, دوره 4 شماره 12 (2014), 29 September 2016 , صفحه 81-100
https://doi.org/10.22037/bj.v4i12.14174

Introduction: Rise in healthcare costs and long waiting lists for patients in developed countries coupled with the availability of high quality medical services at a low cost in developing countries caused the medical tourism industry to emerge. Globalization and free trade in healthcare act as a catalyst to grow this industry. On the other hand, this industry faces challenges such as those related to legal issues. Considering the growth of this industry in Iran and lack of studies on relevant legal issues, this study aims to investigate legal issues related to the medical tourism in Iran.

Methods: This review conducted to investigate legal issues related to medical tourism in Iran. The data of this review study were gathered from journals accessible in databases including Scopus, SID, Pub med and Google Scholar. The search terms were “Medical tourism” and “legal issues”, and “health tourism”. The initial database search retrieved 47 relevant articles. The titles and abstracts of these articles were scanned for relevant information and 23 articles were identified as relevant to the study objectives. Then the results were analyzed.

Results: The findings showed that there are challenges related to the medical tourism along with the increasing growth of this industry. These challenges include areas of access to care, medical errors, health insurance, entities and procedures for licensing and regulating medical centers, practices and technologies.

Conclusion: Challenges related to legal issues deserve policy makers’ and officials’ attention in order to resolve these international challenges and facilitate the process of attracting foreign patients.

GM food products and toward challenges from the perspective of bioethics and right to food

Mahmoud Abbasi, Najmeh Razmkhah, Bahareh Heydari

مجله علمی- پژوهشی اخلاق زیستی, دوره 4 شماره 12 (2014), 29 September 2016 , صفحه 131-164
https://doi.org/10.22037/bj.v4i12.14176

In the framework of international human rights, the« right to adequate food» is a fundamental right of everyone to access to food which is safe and Nutrient. Risks which associated with GM food products for consumers and full control of biotech companies on the research process of safety of these foods, has been arisen concerns of human right activists. These companies on the base of art 15 of (ICSESC) consider that, any type of intervention and supervision of the public sector in the process of their investigations as a violation of the international obligations of states. They avoid to disclose the results of scientific research conducted in laboratories under their control and always claim that GM foods are no different from conventional foods. The situation that not only violated the « right to adequate food » but also is contrary to the « principle of non malfeasance». But, the main question, which is our major concern, is about the conflict created between the « right to adequate food » and principles of « Bioethics» on the one hand and the «right to freedom of scientific research and creative activity» on the other hand. It is obvious that the recent procedures are not enough good for respond to the need to secure the « right to adequate food » and « Bioethics». So that governments and biotechnology companies are required to modify their existing practices and balance different interests to adhere the fundamental principles of human rights and principles of Bioethics.

Health system and consumerism: secondary analysis

Mohammad Bagher Alizadeh Aghdam, Kamal Koohi, Rahim yousefi Aghdam

مجله علمی- پژوهشی اخلاق زیستی, دوره 4 شماره 12 (2014), 29 September 2016 , صفحه 165-195
https://doi.org/10.22037/bj.v4i12.14177

In Iran health system extension and value change and consumerism occur in the same time and mutually reinforce each other. On the one hand, health system defines the “healthy” ways of life and gives the goods and services for it, on the other hand consumerism with commodification of medical science product help the extension of health discourse.  Research method is secondary analysis of National Values Survey, National Account of Iran and National Health Accounts. Data analysis shows, in last decade’s heath satisfaction rate goes down, simultaneously the consume and cost of household in health, eating and drinking, dressing and shoes, the culture and leisure, services goes high. Exact analysis of health institution and its costs, shows expenditure of health in all parts goes high. Theoretical analysis of these phenomena examines consumerism in health system. In other word, in this view health system goes beyond the biology and medical science approach and serves to the social values: consumer culture values.