Comparative study of different religions in the transgenic products technology

Hassan Rahnama



Today, human are able to use genetic engineering to create new organisms, which normally it is very difficult to do. These organisms that named genetically modified organisms (GMO) are very extensive applications in various sciences and technologies including medicine, pharmaceuticals, industry, agriculture… One of the most applications of these organisms is in agriculture and food production. Development of transgenic foods have made some concerns in many different aspects of ethical, social and biosafety and acceptance of the new foods. On the other hand, religious views have a significant role in the public acceptance of this technology. However, the views of various religions and their influence are different on decision making of consumers. In the present paper, the divine views of three great religions (Islam, Christianity and Judaism) are discussed in the context of transgenic technology. The studies show that there is no general consensus on this issue within the three religions. Overall, however, it appears that mainstream theology in all three religions increasingly tends towards acceptance of GM technology per se, on performing GM research, and on consumption of GM foods. However, all of them are believed on there being rigorous scientific, ethical and regulatory scrutiny of research and development of such products, and that these products are properly labeled. Furthermore, the results show that several other factors also influence the religious aspects the acceptance of genetically modified crops, such as media, environmental activists, scientists and food industries as well as all of information sources.


Ethics; Religions; GM Technology; Genetic Engineering

Full Text:




رهنما، حسن. شكيب، علي‌محمد. خيام نكويي، سيدمجتبي. صالحي جوزاني، غلامرضا. پروين، محمدرضا. محمودزاده، هما. صادقي، اكرم. سهيلي‌وند، سعيد. توحيدفر، مسعود. (1388 ش.). مقدمه‌اي بر اخلاق زيستي. تهران: انتشارات پژوهشگاه ابن سينا.

رهنما، حسن. (1386 ش.). حق مالكيت معنوي و اقتصاد در محصولات تراريخته. تهران: پنجمين كنگره ملي بيوتكنولوژي ايران.

رهنما، حسن. (1387 ش.). اخلاق زيستي در مهندسي ژنتيك: تجاوز به حريم گونه‌ها. تهران: دومين همايش ملي ايمني زيستي.

رهنما، حسن. (1387 ش.). اخلاق زيستي و توليد گياهان تراريخته، اخلاق در علوم و فناوري. جلد اول و دوم.

رهنما، حسن. (1391 ش.). اخلاق در توليد واكسن‌هاي گياهي. مجله ايراني اخلاق و تاريخ پزشكي. دوره پنجم، شماره ششم، صص 63-50.

رهنما، حسن. (1391 ش.). درآمدي بر اخلاق زيستي در مهندسي ژنتيك. تهران: دوازدهمين كنگره ژنتيك ايران.

رهنما، حسن. سنجريان، فروغ. (1390 ش.). اخلاق زيستي در مهندسي ژنتيك، اخلاق در علوم و فناوري. جلد سوم.

ساجدنیا، عبدالعزیز. (1381 ش.). دیدگاه اسلام پیرامون شبیه‏سازى. مجله آبادى. شماره بیست و ششم.

مره صدق، سيامك. (1387 ش.). ژنتيك از ديدگاه يهود. ارائه الکترونیکی در:

منابع انگلیسی:

Al Hayani, FA. (2007). Biomedical Ethics: Muslim Perspectives on Genetic Modification. Zygon. 42: 153-162.

Assadi, D. (2003). Do Religions Influence Customer Behaviour? Confronting religious rules and marketing concepts. Cahiers du CEREN. 5: 2-13.

Burton, M. Rigby, D. Young, T. James, S. (2001). Consumer attitudes to genetically modified Organisms in food in the U.K. European Review of Agricultural Economics. 28: 479-498.

Einsele, A. (2007). The Gap between Science and Perception: The Case of Plant Biotechnology in Europe. Adv Biochem Engin/ Biotechnol. 107: 1-11.

Ferdaus, H. Benjamin, O. (2004). Product attributes and consumer acceptance of nutritionally enhanced genetically modified foods. International Journal of Consumer Studies. 28: 255-267.

Green, M. (2007). Why GM Food Isn't Kosher. Available at:

Halman, L. Draulaus, V. (2006). How Secular is Europe? The British Journal of Sociology. 57(2): 263-288.

James, C. (2012). Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/ GM Crops. Available at:

Koepsell, D. (2007). The ethics of genetic engineering. A position paper from the Center for Inquiry Office of Public Policy. Available at:

Malboobi, MT. Malboobi, MA. (2010). Halal Concept and Products Derived from Modern Biotechnology. International Workshop for Islamic Scholars on Agribiotechnology: Shariah Compliance. Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia, 21-28. shariah_compliance/download/default.asp.

Omobowale, EB. Singer, PA. Darr, AB. (2009). The three main monotheistic religions and GM food technology: an overview of perspectives. BMC International Health and Human Rights. 9: 1-8.

PAS (The Pontifical Academy of the Sciences). (2001). Science and the Future of Mankind: Science for Man and Man for Science. 517-526.

Rollin Bernard, E. (1995). Ethics and Species Integrity. The American Journal of Bioethics. 3: 15-17.

Technology in Africa's Development. (2007). A Report of the High Level African Panel on Modern Technology. African Union (AU) and New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). Addis Ababa and Pretoria 2007.

Troster, L. (2000). Religion: Genetically Altered foods Violate Bounds of Creation. Available at:



  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License CC BY-NC 4.0. Copyright © 2016 Bioethics Journal (Quarterly). All rights reserved.  All credits and honors to PKP for their OJS.

For Author | Online Submission | About Contact