Introduction: Alcohol poisoning is one of the main preventable causes of death, disability, and injury in many societies. Ethanol and methanol are the most prevalent kinds of alcohol used. There is no any exact reports of alcohol poisoning and its outcome in Iranian society. Therefore, the present study was assessed the status of alcohol poisoning and its outcome in referees to the emergency department. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study which was done from July 2013 to 2014 in Sina Trauma Center, Tabriz, Iran. The studied population included all alcohol poisoning cases referred to this center. Demographic variables, clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and patient's outcome were evaluated. To assess the relation between evaluated factors and outcome of alcohol poisoning. After univariate analysis a multivariate logistic regression was applied to evaluate independent risk factors for death. P<0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Lastly 81 patients with alcohol poisoning were entered to the study (91.4% male) with the mean age of 27.9±10.4 years. Ten (12.3%) subjects were dialyzed and 34 (42%) cases hospitalized that 3 (3.7%) of them died. The multivariate logistic regression test displayed that plasma creatinine level (OR=2.2 95%Cl: 1.8-2.5; p=0.015) and need for dialysis (OR=6.4; 95%Cl: 5.3-7.5; p<0.001) were the only risk factors of death among these patients. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that total mortality rate of referees to the emergency with alcohol poisoning was 3.7% all of whom related to methanol poisoning. Based on this result, the mortality rate of methanol poisoning was estimated 20%. Need for dialysis and increasing the creatinine level were accounted as independent risk factors of death.
Babor T. Alcohol: no ordinary commodity: research and public policy: Oxford University Press; 2010. p. 12-7.
Organization WH. Global status report on alcohol and health-2014: World Health Organization; 2014. p. 1-72.
Coutelle C, Ward P, Fleury B, et al. Laryngeal and oropharyngeal cancer, and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 and glutathione S-transferase M1 polymorphisms. Hum Genet. 1997;99(3):319-25.
Poznyak V, Fleischmann A, Rekve D, Rylett M, Rehm J, Gmel G. The World Health organization’s Global Monitoring System on Alcohol and Health. Alcohol res. 2014;35(2):244-9.
World Health Organization. Alcohol epidemiology, monitoring, and information system. Genova: 2014.
Dennis LK, Hayes RB. Alcohol and prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev. 2013;23(1):110-4.
Bagnardi V, Rota M, Botteri E, et al. Light alcohol drinking and cancer: a meta-analysis. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(2):301-8.
Tramacere I, Negri E, Pelucchi C, et al. A meta-analysis on alcohol drinking and gastric cancer risk. Ann Oncol. 2011;23(1):28-36.
Mostafazadeh B, Eghbali H. An Epidemiologic Study on Methyl Alcohol Poisoning in Tehran, Iran. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol. 2014;3(1):8-12.
Shadnia S, Rahimi M, Soltaninejad K, Nilli A. Role of clinical and paraclinical manifestations of methanol poisoning in outcome prediction. J ResMed Sci. 2013;18(10):865-9. [Persian].
Moghaddam SAB, Pajoumand A. Prognostic Factors including clinical manifestation and Paraclinic finding in sever methanol toxicity. Life Sci J. 2014;11(2s):11-4.
Sanaei-Zadeh H, Esfeh SK, Zamani N, Jamshidi F, Shadnia S. Hyperglycemia is a strong prognostic factor of lethality in methanol poisoning. J Med Toxicol. 2011;7(3):189-94.
Kute V, Godara S, Shah P, et al. Hemodialysis for methyl alcohol poisoning: A single-center experience. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2012;23(1):37-42.
Ghannoum M, Hoffman RS, Mowry JB, Lavergne V. Trends in toxic alcohol exposures in the United States from 2000 to 2013: a focus on the use of antidotes and extracorporeal treatments. Semin Dial. 2014;27(4):395-401.
Ringwalt CL, Paschall MJ, Gitelman AM. Alcohol prevention strategies on college campuses and student alcohol abuse and related problems. J Drug Educ. 2011;41(1):99-118.
Paltzer J, Black P, Moberg DP. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin. J Alcohol Drug Educ. 2013;57(3):27-32.
Puskar K, Gotham HJ, Terhorst L, et al. Effects of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) education and training on nursing students’ attitudes toward working with patients who use alcohol and drugs. Subst Abus. 2013;34(2):122-8.
Connor J. Healthy alcohol policy as an injury prevention strategy. Inj Prev. 2012;18(Suppl 1):A14.
Chinman M, Burkhart Q, Ebener P, et al. The premises is the premise: understanding off-and on-premises alcohol sales outlets to improve environmental alcohol prevention strategies. Prev sci. 2011;12(2):181-91.