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Correlation of Hyperchloremic Metabolic Acidosis and Renal Function in Critically ill Patients of Emergency Department: an Observational Study

Mauro Giordano, Tiziana Ciarambino, Pietro Castellino, Lorenzo Malatino, Giuseppe Signoriello, Giuseppe Paolisso, Luigi Elio Adinolfi
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Abstract

Introduction: Early detection is crucial for prompt management of acute kidney injury (AKI) patients in emergency department (ED). This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (HCMA) levels in this regard.

 Methods: In this retrospective observational study, > 18 years old critically ill patients presenting to ED of Marcianise Hospital, Italy, were divided into non-AKI and AKI group according to KDIGO guideline. The level of HCMA ((arterial pH x bicarbonate)/chloride) was compared between groups and correlation of HCMA with estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) in ARF patients was evaluated.

Results: 134 patients with the mean age of 76.5 ± 3.1 years were enrolled (64 non-AKI and 70 AKI; 64% female). Two groups were similar regarding mean age (p = 0.251), sex (p = 0.091), APACHII score (p = 0.215), Charlson Comorbidity Index (p= 0.187), and body mass index (p = 0.129). The mean HCMA level was 1.98 ± 0.09 in the non-AKI group and 1.56 ± 0.07 in the AKI group (p=0.039). There was a positive correlation between HCMA and e-GFR levels in AKI group (r: 0.467, p=0.0092).

Conclusions: If confirmed and validated in a future study, ABG derived formula for HCMA may be a useful tool for early detection of AKI patients in emergency department.


Keywords

Acute kidney injury; hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis; emergency department; renal function

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/emergency.v6i1.21610

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