The respiratory system is exposed to the potentially harmful environment agents. More importantly, respiratory system infection is an important risk factor for inflammation and some pathogens can be main responsible of asthma. Phagocytosis is a main mechanism to eliminate of microbial infection. Phagocytic clearance may control asthma pathogenesis. In asthma, cytokines balance may be changed, therefore we investigated possible change in phagocytes in the present study.14 male Balb/c mice were divided into two control and asthmatic group. Asthma model in mice was produced by ovalbumin. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated and reduction nitro blue tetrazolium and latex bead florescence phagocytosis tests were done.
There was no significant difference in phagocytosis and NBT reduction test between asthmatic and control groups (P≤0.05).Airway inflammation and unbalancing of cytokines in asthma might modulate phagocytosis function. Therefore, asthmatic patient might be more susceptible to airway infection but there was not any notable changes in phagocytosis.
Anne M. Fitzpatrick, Fernando Holguin, W. Gerald Teague and Lou Ann S. Brown. Alveolar macrophage phagocytosis is impaired in children with poorly controlled asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;121:1372-8
Sheikh A, Strachan DP. The hygiene theory: fact or fiction? Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004; 12(3):232-6.
Heymann PW, Carper HT, Murphy DD, Platts-Mills TA, Patrie J, McLaughlin AP, et al. Viral infections in relation to age, atopy, and season of admission among children hospitalized for wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 114:239-47.
Seyyede Masoume Athari, Faride Afshari, Asie Eftekhari, Seyyed Shamsadin Athari. The surveillance system, diagnosis and treatment challenges of asthma and health policy orientation of main challenges. J Pain Manage Ther. 2017; 1(2):1-5
Baughn, R.; Bonventre, P.F. Phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by normal mouse peritoneal macrophages. Infect. Immun. 1975, 12, 346–352.
Przerwa, A.; Zimecki, M.; S´witała-Jelen´ , K.; Da˛browsk, K.; Krawczyk, E.; Łuczak, M.; Weber-Da˛browska, B.; Syper, D.; Mi˛edzybrodzki, R.; Górski, A. Effects of bacteriophages on free radical production and phagocytic functions. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 2006, 195, 143–150.
Bocian, K.; Borysowski, J.; Zarzycki, M.; Wierzbicki, P.; Kłosowska, D.; Weber-Da˛browska, B.; Korczak-Kowalska, G.; Górski, A. LPS-activated monocytes are unresponsive to T4 phage and T4-generated Escherichia coli lysate. Front. Microbiol. 2016, 7, 1356.
Spencer A. Freeman and Sergio Grinstein. Phagocytosis: How Macrophages Tune Their Non-professional Counterparts. Current Biology 26, R1272–R1296, December 19, 2016
Flannagan, R.S., Cosio, G., and Grinstein, S. (2009). Antimicrobial mechanisms of phagocytes and bacterial evasion strategies. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 7, 355–366.
Monks, J., Rosner, D., Geske, F.J., Lehman, L., Hanson, L., Neville, M.C., and Fadok, V.A. (2005). Epithelial cells as phagocytes: apoptotic epithelial cells are engulfed by mammary alveolar epithelial cells and repress inflammatory mediator release. Cell Death Differ. 12, 107–114.
Ichimura, T., Asseldonk, E.J., Humphreys, B.D., Gunaratnam, L., Duffield, J.S., and Bonventre, J.V. (2008). Kidney injury molecule-1 is a phosphatidylserine receptor that confers a phagocytic phenotype on epithelial cells. J. Clin. Invest. 118, 1657–1668.
Elliott, M.R., and Ravichandran, K.S. (2010). Clearance of apoptotic cells: implications in health and disease. J.CellBiol. 189, 1059–1070.
Ravichandran, K.S., and Lorenz, U. (2007). Engulfment of apoptotic cells: signals for a good meal. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 7, 964–974
Henson PM, Tuder RM. Apoptosis in the lung: induction, clearance and detection. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008; 294(4):L601–L611.
Jeong H Yun, Peter M Henson, Rubin M Tuder. Phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells: role in lung disease. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2008; 2(6): 753–765.
Maderna P, Godson C. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and the resolution of inflammation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003; 1639(3):141–151.
Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Zahra Pourpak, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen, Mostafa Moin, Ian M. Adcock, Masoud Movassaghi, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni, Esmaeil Mortaz. Conjugated Alpha-Alumina nanoparticle with vasoactive intestinal peptide as a Nano-drug in treatment of allergic asthma in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology 2016; 791:811–820
Nowruz Delirejh, Ahmad Morshedi and Seyyed Shamsadin Athari. Survey of the Effect of Powder Nigella Sativa (Black Seed) in Increscent of Monocyte Phagocytosis in Quinea Pig. Ofogh-e-Danesh. GMUHS Journal. 2010; 16(4):55-64 [In Persian]
Corne JM, Marshall C, Smith S, Schreibner J, Sanderson G, Holgate ST, et al. Frequency, severity, and duration of rhinovirus infections in asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet 2002; 359:831-4.
Jartti T, Lehtinen P, Vuorinen T, Koskenvuo M, Ruuskanen O. Persistence of rhinovirus and enterovirus RNA after acute respiratory illness in children. J Med Virol 2004; 72:695-9.
Alderen A, Underhill DM. Mechanisms of phagocytosis in macrophages. Ann Rev Immunol 1999; 17:593-623.
Gordon S. Alternative activation of macrophages. Nature Rev 2003; 3:23-35.
Vandivier RW, Fadok VA, Hoffman PR, Bratton DL, Penvari C, Brown KK, et al. Elastase-mediated phosphatidylserine receptor cleavage impairs apoptotic cell clearance in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. J Clin Invest 2002; 109:661-70.
Berenson CS, Garlipp MA, Grove LJ, Maloney J, Sethi S. Impaired phagocytosis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by human alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Infect Dis 2006; 194:1375-84.
Kei Yamasaki and Stephan F. van Eeden. Lung Macrophage Phenotypes and Functional Responses: Role in the Pathogenesis of COPD. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 582; doi:10.3390/ijms19020582
Alexis NE, Soukup J, Nierkens S, Becker S. Association between airway hyperreactivity and bronchial macrophage dysfunction in individuals with mild asthma. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2001; 280:L369-75.