In the present study lactic acid production was enhanced by optimizing the three process variables viz; inoculum size, temperature and pH using three factor five level CCRD (central composite rotatable design) by Lactobacillus delbruckii under SMF (submerged fermentation process). Paneer (dairy by-product) whey was used as sole substrate for lactic acid production. Design Expert 220.127.116.11 software depicted that an optimum concentration of 8% (v/v) size of inoculum, 5.50 pH and 36.53C temperature gave lactic acid and biomass yield of 5.61 g/L and 4.27 g/L, respectively. Lactic acid production was scale up in 7.5 L bioreactor under optimized conditions and it gave lactic acid and biomass yield of 39.2±1.4 and 47.6±0.8 g/L, respectively. μg, YP/S, YP/X and productivity were found to be 0.14 h-1, 0.66 g/g, 0.7 g/g and 1.98 g/L. h, respectively. Leudking Piret equation deduced that lactic acid production was growth associated which varies from earlier reports. Lactic acid was characterized by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography).
Weusthuis RA, Lamot I, Ooost JV, Sander PM. Microbial production of bulk chemicals: Development of anaerobic processes. Cell., 2010; 15: 34-43.
Panesar PS, Kennedy JF, Knill CJ, Kosseva M. Applicability of pectate entrapped Lactobacillus casei cells for L (+) lactic acid production from whey. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2007; 74: 35–42.
Gassem MA, Abu-Tarboush HM. Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus in camel’s
and cow’s wheys. Milchwissenschaft., 2000; 55: 374–378.
Kumar S, Jha YK, Chauhan GS. Process optimization for lactic acid production from whey using Lactobacillus strains. J. Food. Sci. Technol., 2001; 38: 59–61.
Timmer JMK, Kromkamp J. Efficiency of lactic acid production by Lactobacillus helveticus in a membrane cell recycle reactor. FEMS Microbiol Rev., 1994; 14: 29 –38.
Vickroy TB, Blanch HW, Drew S, Wang DIC. Lactic acid in the practice of biotechnology commodity products. Elmsford NY Pergamon Press., 1985; 761–776.
Kharas GB, Sanchez–Riera F, Severson DK. Plastics from Microbes: Microbial Synthesis of Polymers and Polymer Precursors Munich. Hanser Publishers., 1994; 93–137.
Hofvendahl K, Hahn-Hagerdal B. Factors affecting the fermentative lactic acid production from renewable resources. Enzyme Microbial Technol., 2000; 26: 87–107.
Yanez R, Moldes AB, Alonso JL, Parajo JC. Production of D (-) lactic acid from cellulose by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens. Biotechnol Lett., 2003; 25: 1161–71.
Joshi DS, Singhvi MS, Khire JM, Gokhale DV. Strain improvement of Lactobacillus lactis for D-lactic acid production. Biotechnol Lett., 2010; 32: 517–520.
Lu ZD, Lu MB, He F, Yu LJ. An economical approach for D-lactic acid production utilizing unpolished rice from aging paddy as major nutrient source. Bioresour. Technol., 2009; 100: 2026–2031.
Taguchi S, Fumi S, Kenichiro M, Ren M, Jian S, Toshifumi S, Toyoji K. Biosynthesis of a lactate (LA)-based polyester with a 96 mol% LA fraction and its application to stereocomplex formation. Polym Degrad Stab., 2011; 96: 499-504.
Rincon J, Fuertes J, Moya A, Monteagudo J.M, Rodriguez L. Optimization of the fermentation of whey by Lactobacillus casei. Appl. Biotech., 1993; 13: 323–331.
AOAC, Official method of analysis, Washington DC, USA, 1984.
Amrane A, Prigent Y. Lactic acid production from lactose in batch culture: analysis of the data with the help of a mathematical model; relevance for nitrogen source and preculture assessment. Appl Microbiol and Biotechnol., 1994; 40: 644 –649.
Helm D, Labischinski H, Schallehn G, Naumann D. Classification and identification of bacteria by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. J Gen Microbiol., 1991; 137: 69– 79.
Masud T, Athar IH, Shah MA. Comparative study on paneer making from buffalo and cow milk. Am J Agri Sci., 1993; 5 (3): 563-565.
Goyal N, Gandhi DN. Comparative Analysis of Indian Paneer and cheese whey for electrolyte whey drink. World J Dairy Food Sci., 2009; 4 (1): 70-72.
Axelsson LL. Lactic acid bacteria: Classification and physiology microbiological and functional aspects. New York Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1984; 1-66.
Nagarjun PA, Rao RS, Rajesham S, Rao LV. Optimization of lactic acid production in SSF by Lactobacillus amylovorus NRRL B-4542 using Taguchi methodology. J Microbiol., 2005; 43: 38–43.
Amrane A, Prigent Y. Growth and lactic acid production coupling for Lactobacillus helveticus cultivated on supplemented whey: influence of peptide nitrogen deficiency. J Biotech., 1997; 55: 1– 8.
Kashket ER. Bioenergetics of lactic acid bacteria: Cytoplasmic pH and osmotolerance. FEMS Microbiol Rev., 1993; 46: 233– 244.
Reddy CA, Henderson HE, Erdman MD. Bacterial fermentation of cheese whey for production of a ruminant feed supplement rich in crude protein. Appl Environ Microbiol., 1976; 32: 769-772.
Stieber RW, Gerhardt P. Dialysis continuous process for ammonium lactate fermentation: Simulated and experimental dialysate-feed, immobilized-cell systems. Biotechnol Bioeng., 1981; 23: 535-549.
Roy D, Goulet J, LeDuy A. Batch fermentation of whey ultrafiltrate by Lactobacillus helveticus for lactic acid production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol., 1986; 24: 206–213.
Klovrychev MF, Korolev PN, Bulgakova VG. Effect of copper ions and unfavourable pH on protein and RNA synthesis of Candida utilis. Microbiol., 1979; 47: 357–361.
Tango MSA, Ghaly AE. A continuous lactic acid production system using an immobilized packed bed of Lactobacillus helveticus. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech., 2002; 58: 712–720.
Norton S, Lacroix C, Vuillemard, JC. Kinetic study of continuous whey permeates fermentation by immobilized Lactobacillus helveticus for lactic acid production. Enzyme Microbiol Technol., 1994; 16: 457-466.
Ohleyer E, Wilke CR, Blanch HW. Continuous production of lactic acid from glucose and lactose in a
cell-recycle reactor. Appl Biochem Biotechnol., 2006; 11: 57– 63.
Champagne CM. Fermentation in the fast lane Alimentec., 1992; 5: 10–13.
Roy D, Goulet J, Le Duy A. Continuous production of lactic acid from whey permeates by free and calcium alginate entrapped Lactobacillus helveticus. J Dairy Sci., 1987; 70: 506–513.
Gupta R, Gandhi DN. Effect of supplementation of some nutrients in whey on the production of lactic acid. Indian J Dairy Sci., 2006; 48: 636–641.
Ye K, Jin S, Shimizu K. Performance improvement of lactic acid fermentation by multistage extractive fermentation. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 1996; 81: 240–246.
Chauhan K, Trivedi U, Patel KC. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of lactic acid production using date juice. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2006; 16(9): 1410–1415.
Panda SH, Ray RC. Direct conversion of raw starch to lactic acid by Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 in semi solid fermentation using sweet potato Flour. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 2008; 67 (7): 531-537.