The modern lifestyle is characterized by a continuous increase in the demand of ready-to-eat fresh food products subjected to minimal processes prior marketing. Attention is drawn towards the effect of this processing on the antioxidant/antiradical properties of two typical Italian salads belonging to Cichorium genus. Four chemical assays (anti-peroxyl radical activity, DPPH• assay, metal chelating ability assay, and reducing power assay) were used for evaluating these properties. The results indicated that the anti-peroxyl radical activity, the anti-DPPH radical activity, the metal chelating ability, and the reducing power were significantly higher in fresh samples as compared to 8-days stored samples (p<0.001). Minimal processing applied to vegetables further affected the tested properties causing a decrease over time from 24h to 8d of storage at 4°C. Overall, the results presented in this study showed that any minimal processing applied to ready-to-eat vegetable affects the antioxidant/antiradical properties determining a decrease in the values registered in the four chemical assays.
Fröder H, Martins CG, De Souza KL, Landgraf M, Franco BD, Destro MT. Minimally processed vegetable salads: microbial quality evaluation. J Food Prot. 2007; 70: 1277-1280.
Tournas VH. Moulds and yeasts in fresh and minimally processed vegetables and sprouts. Int J Food Microbiol. 2005; 99: 71-77.
Caldera L, Franzetti L. Effect of storage temperature on the microbial composition of ready-to-use vegetables. Curr Microbiol. 2014; 68: 133-139.
Karagozlu N, Ergonul B, Ozcan D. Determination of antimicrobial effect of mint and basil essential oils on survival of E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium in fresh-cut lettuce and purslane. Food Control. 2011; 22: 1851-1855.
Muriel-Galet V, Cerisuelo JP, Lopez-Carballo G., Lara M, Gavara R, Hernandez-Munoz P. Development of antimicrobial films for microbiological control of packaged salad. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012; 157: 195-201.
Harasym J, Oledzki R. Effect of fruit and vegetable antioxidants on total antioxidant
capacity of blood plasma. Nutrition. 2014; 30: 511-517.
Lançon A, Michaille JJ, Latruffe N. Effects of dietary phytophenols on the expression of microRNAs involved in mammalian cell homeaostasis. J Sci Food Agric. 2013; 93: 3155-3164.
Rodrigo R, Gil D, Miranda-Merchak A, Kalantzidis G. Antihypertensive role of polyphenols. Adv Clin Chem. 2012; 58: 225-254.
Street RA, Sidana J, Prinsloo G. Cichorium intybus: traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and Toxicology. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013, doi: 10.1155/2013/579319
Papetti A, Mascherpa D, Carazzone C, Stauder M, Spratt DA, Wilson JP, Ciric L, Lingstrom P, Zaura E, Weiss E, Ofek I, Signoretto C, Pruzzo C, Gazzani G. Identification of organic acids in Cichorium intybus inhibiting virulence-related properties of oral pathogenic bacteria. Food Chem. 2013; 138: 1706-1712.
Papetti A, Daglia M, Gazzani G. Anti- and pro-oxidant water soluble activity of Cichorium genus vegetables and the effect of thermal treatment. J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50: 4696-4704.
Papetti A, Daglia M, Gazzani G. Anti- and pro-oxidant activity of water soluble compounds in Cichorium intybus var. silvestre (Treviso red chicory). J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2002; 30: 939-945.
Papetti A, Daglia M, Grisoli P, Dacarro C, Gregotti C, Gazzani G. Anti- and pro-oxidant activity of Cichorium genus vegetables and effect of thermal treatmenti in biological systems. Food Chem. 2006; 97: 157-165.
Butelli E, Titta L, Giorgio M, Mock HP, Matros A, Peterek S, Schijlen EGWM, Hall RD, Bovy AG, Luo J, Martin C. Enrichment of tomato fruit with health-promoting anthocyanins by expression of select transcription factors. Nat Biotechnol, 2008; 26: 1301-1308.
Lim K-T, Hu C, Kitts DD. Antioxidant activity of a Rhus verniciflua stokes ethanol extract. Food Chem Toxicol. 2001; 39: 229-237.
Siswoyo T A, Mardiana E, Lee K O, Hoshokawa K. Isolation and characterization of antioxidant protein fractions from Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) seeds. J Agric Food Chem. 2011; 59: 5648-5656.
Wang Y, Liu Y, Huo J, Zhaoa X, Zheng J, Wei X. , Effect of different drying methods on chemical composition and bioactivity of tea polysaccharides. Int J Biol Macromol. 2013; 62: 714-719.
Daglia M, Papetti A, Aceti C, Sordelli B, Gregotti C, Gazzani G. Isolation of high molecular weight components and contribution to the protective activity of coffee against lipid peroxidation in a rat liver microsome system. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56: 11653-11660.
Xie M, Hu B, Wang Y, Zeng X. Grafting of gallic acid onto chitosan enhances antioxidant activities and alters rheological properties of the copolymer. J Agric Food Chem. 2014; 62: 9128-9136.
Carazzone C, Mascherpa D, Gazzani G, Papetti A. Identification of phenolic constituents in red chicory salads (Cichorium intybus) by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chem. 2013; 138: 1062-1071.
DuPont MS, Mondin Z, Williamson G, Price KR. Effect of variety, processing, and storage on the flavonoid glycoside content and composition of lettuce and endive. J Agric Food Chem. 2000; 48: 3957-3964.