Background and objective: Every year, large quantities of date palm seeds are produced as byproducts in date processing and packaging industries, which is discarded or used as low-value materials for animal feeds and composts. However, these bioresources may include potentials to produce high-value added products in food industries. The major aim of the current study was to assess phenolic profiles and contents and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of four Iranian date palm seed extracts, namely Zahedi, Kabkab, Mazafati and Rabbi.
Material and methods: Total phenolic contents, phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts from four Iranian date palm seeds were assessed using Folin-Ciocalteu, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, 2, 2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively.
Results and conclusion: Total phenolic contents varied 1480-3380 mg GAE 100 g-1 dw. cinnamic, chlorogenic, caffeic and 3, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid included the primary phenolic compounds, respectively. Of the varieties, Kabkab and Mazafati seed extracts with IC50 values of 16.56 and 22.6 µg ml-1 demonstrated the highest and lowest radical scavenging activity, respectively. Results obtained from disc diffusion method revealed that all extracts included inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus, but not against Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the extracts ranged 1.563.125 and 3.125-12.5 mg ml-1 for Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Based on the findings, Iranian date seeds are good sources of extractable phenolic compounds with notable antioxidant activities, which can be used as natural additives in formulations of various products such as functional foods and dietary supplements. Furthermore, these seeds can be converted to value added products through biotechnological processes.
Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Mohamed RM, Fageer AS, Eltayeb MM, Mohamed Ahmed IA. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and mineral extractability of S udanese date palm (P hoenix dactylifera L.) fruits. Food science & nutrition. 2014;2(5):478-89.
Johnson DV, Al-Khayri JM, Jain SM. Introduction: Date Production Status and Prospects in Africa and the Americas. Date Palm Genetic Resources and Utilization: Springer; 2015. p. 3-18.
Zhang C-R, Aldosari SA, Vidyasagar PS, Shukla P, Nair MG. Health-benefits of date fruits produced in Saudi Arabia based on in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and human tumor cell proliferation inhibitory assays. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 2017;16(3):287-93.
Faostat F. Agriculture organization of the united Nations statistics division (2014). Production Available in: http://faostat3 fao org/browse/Q/QC/S [Review date: April 2015]. 2016.
Besbes S, Blecker C, Deroanne C, Lognay G, Drira N, Attia H. Quality characteristics and oxidative stability of date seed oil during storage. Food science and technology international. 2004;10(5):333-8.
Besbes S, Drira L, Blecker C, Deroanne C, Attia H. Adding value to hard date (Phoenix dactylifera L.): compositional, functional and sensory characteristics of date jam. Food chemistry. 2009;112(2):406-11.
Hossain MZ, Waly MI, Singh V, Sequeira V, Rahman MS. Chemical composition of date-pits and its potential for developing value-added product-a review. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2014;64(4):215-26.
Al-Ogaidi H, Khalifa S, Hadi H, Al-Nakash S. Production of protein from date stone by Aspergillus Oryzae. Journal of Agriculture and Water Resources Research (Iraq). 1985.
Hamada J, Hashim I, Sharif F. Preliminary analysis and potential uses of date pits in foods. Food chemistry. 2002;76(2):135-7.
Al-Farsi M, Alasalvar C, Al-Abid M, Al-Shoaily K, Al-Amry M, Al-Rawahy F. Compositional and functional characteristics of dates, syrups, and their by-products. Food Chemistry. 2007;104(3):943-7.
Sahari M, Barzegar M, Radfar R. Effect of varieties on the composition of dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.)—note. Food Science and Technology International. 2007;13(4):269-75.
Bailey G, Williams D. Potential mechanisms for food-related carcinogens and anticarcinogens. Food technology (USA). 1993.
Mohamed Lemine FM, Mohamed Ahmed MVO, Ben Mohamed Maoulainine L, Bouna ZeAO, Samb A, O. Boukhary AOMS. Antioxidant activity of various Mauritanian date palm (P hoenix dactylifera L.) fruits at two edible ripening stages. Food science & nutrition. 2014;2(6):700-5.
Liverio L, Puglisi P, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E. Antimutagenic activity of procyanidins from Vitis vinifera. Journal for the Study of Medicinal Plants. 1994;65:203-9.
Takechi M, Tanaka Y, Takehara M, Nonaka G-I, Nishioka I. Structure and antiherpetic activity among the tannins. Phytochemistry. 1985;24(10):2245-50.
Farag MA, Mohsen M, Heinke R, Wessjohann LA. Metabolomic fingerprints of 21 date palm fruit varieties from Egypt using UPLC/PDA/ESI–qTOF-MS and GC–MS analyzed by chemometrics. Food Research International. 2014;64:218-26.
Basanta MF, Rizzo SA, Szerman N, Vaudagna SR, Descalzo AM, Gerschenson LN, et al. Plum (Prunus salicina) peel and pulp microparticles as natural antioxidant additives in breast chicken patties. Food Research International. 2018;106:1086-94.
Mansouri A, Embarek G, Kokkalou E, Kefalas P. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of the Algerian ripe date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera). Food chemistry. 2005;89(3):411-20.
Al-Farsi MA, Lee CY. Optimization of phenolics and dietary fibre extraction from date seeds. Food Chemistry. 2008;108(3):977-85.
Al-Farsi M, Alasalvar C, Morris A, Baron M, Shahidi F. Comparison of antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenolics of three native fresh and sun-dried date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties grown in Oman. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2005;53(19):7592-9.
Bakhtiyari E, Ahmadian-Attari MM, Salehi P, Khallaghi B, Dargahi L, Mohamed Z, et al. Non-polyphenolic compounds of a specific kind of dried grape (Maviz) inhibit memory impairments induced by beta-amyloid peptide. Nutritional neuroscience. 2017;20(8):469-77.
Bauer A, Kirby W, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American journal of clinical pathology. 1966;45(4):493.
Abdollahzadeh E, Rezaei M, Hosseini H. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils and extracts: The role of thyme essential oil, nisin, and their combination to control Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced fish meat. Food Control. 2014;35(1):177-83.
Hammer KA, Carson CF, Dunstan JA, Hale J, Lehmann H, Robinson CJ, et al. Antimicrobial and anti‐inflammatory activity of five Taxandria fragrans oils in vitro. Microbiology and immunology. 2008;52(11):522-30.
Mahmoudzadeh M, Hosseini H, Shahraz F, Akhondzadeh‐Basti A, Khaneghah AM, Azizkhani M, et al. Essential Oil Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Carum copticum and its Antibacterial Effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli O157: H7. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2017;41(3):e12938.
Bouhlali E, Bammou M, Sellam K, Benlyasa M, Alem C, Filali-Zegzouti Y. Evaluation of antioxidant, antihemolytic and antibacterial potential of six Moroccan date fruit (Phoenix dactyliferaL.) varieties. J King Saud Univ Sci. 2016;28:136-42.
Marshall R, Mistrello J, Sirisena S, Ghavami A, Krishnamoorthy S. Determination of the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and avonoid contents of seeds from three commercial varieties of culinary dates. International Journal of Food Studies. 2014;3(1):34-44.
Juhaimi FA, Ghafoor K, Özcan MM. Physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, total phenol and mineral profile of seeds of seven different date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties. International journal of food sciences and nutrition. 2012;63(1):84-9.
Ardekani MRS, Khanavi M, Hajimahmoodi M, Jahangiri M, Hadjiakhoondi A. Comparison of antioxidant activity and total phenol contents of some date seed varieties from Iran. Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research: IJPR. 2010;9(2):141.
Al Juhaimi F, Özcan MM, Adiamo OQ, Alsawmahi ON, Ghafoor K, Babiker EE. Effect of date varieties on physico‐chemical properties, fatty acid composition, tocopherol contents, and phenolic compounds of some date seed and oils. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2018;42(4):e13584.
Kokabi M, Yousefzadi M, Feghhi MA, Keshavarz M. Antioxidant activity of extracts of selected algae from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Journal of the Persian Gulf. 2013;4(12):45-50.
Biglari F, AlKarkhi AF, Easa AM. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of various date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits from Iran. Food chemistry. 2008;107(4):1636-41.
Soong Y-Y, Barlow PJ. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of selected fruit seeds. Food chemistry. 2004;88(3):411-7.
Hashemi SMB, Mousavi Khaneghah A. Characterization of novel basil-seed gum active edible films and coatings containing oregano essential oil. Progress in Organic Coatings. 2017;110:35-41.
Hashemi SMB, Khaneghah AM, Barba FJ, Lorenzo JM, Rahman MS, Amarowicz R, et al. Characteristics of Wild Pear (Pyrus glabra Boiss) Seed Oil and Its Oil‐in‐Water Emulsions: A Novel Source of Edible Oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 2018;120(2):1700284.
Derakhshan Z, Ferrante M, Tadi M, Ansari F, Heydari A, Hosseini MS, et al. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic extract of pomegranate peels, juice and seeds. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2018;114:108-11.
Hashemi SMB, Mousavi Khaneghah A, Nikmaram N, Raeisi S, Rahman MS, Avallone S. Heating, microwave and UV irradiation effects on oxidative stability of Sardasht red grape (Vitis vinifera cultiv. Sardasht) seed oil. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 2017;52(6):1341-7.
Connor AM, Luby JJ, Hancock JF, Berkheimer S, Hanson EJ. Changes in fruit antioxidant activity among blueberry cultivars during cold-temperature storage. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2002;50(4):893-8.
Guo C, Yang J, Wei J, Li Y, Xu J, Jiang Y. Antioxidant activities of peel, pulp and seed fractions of common fruits as determined by FRAP assay. Nutrition Research. 2003;23(12):1719-26.
Cuvelier M-E, Richard H, Berset C. Comparison of the antioxidative activity of some acid-phenols: structure-activity relationship. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. 1992;56(2):324-5.
Alzoreky N, Nakahara K. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia. International journal of food microbiology. 2003;80(3):223-30.
Yeganeh M, Hosseini H, Mehrabian S, Siasi Torbati E, Zamir SM. Antibiofilm Effects of Lactobacilli against Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains in Pasteurized Milk. 2017. 2017;4(4):10.
Qadoos HA, Dhafari HS, Al Marzooqi DA, Kumarappan A, Nazir A. Phenolic content and antimicrobial activities of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits and leaves. Food Biology. 2017;6:11-5.
Samad MA, Hashim SH, Simarani K, Yaacob JS. Antibacterial properties and effects of fruit chilling and extract storage on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content of four date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) cultivars. Molecules. 2016;21(4):419.
Barbary O, El-Sohaimy S, El-Saadani M, Zeitoun A. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-HCV activities of lignan extracted from flaxseed. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 2010;6(3):247-56.
Sellam K, Ramchoun M, Alem C, El-Rhaffari L. Biological investigations of antioxidant-antimicrobial properties and chemical composition of essential oil from Lavandula multifida. Oxidants and Antioxidants in Medical Science. 2013;2(3):211-6.
Bakhtiary F, Sayevand HR, Mousavi Khaneghah A, Haslberger AG, Hosseini H. Antibacterial Efficacy of Essential Oils and Sodium Nitrite in Vacuum processed Beef Fillet. 2018. 2018;5(1):10.
Papuc C, Goran GV, Predescu CN, Nicorescu V, Stefan G. Plant Polyphenols as Antioxidant and Antibacterial Agents for Shelf‐Life Extension of Meat and Meat Products: Classification, Structures, Sources, and Action Mechanisms. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2017;16(6):1243-68.