• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

Tocopherols, Phycocyanin and Superoxide Dismutase from Microalgae: as Potential Food Antioxidants

Ivonne Sandra Santiago-Morales, Lourdes Trujillo-Valle, Facundo Joaquín Márquez-Rocha, Jenny Fabiola López Hernández
876

Views

PDF

Abstract

 

Background and Objective: Microalgae are photosynthetic organisms that are in contact with several reactive oxygen species, and under these conditions microalgae produce a wide variety of antioxidant compounds to protect from highly oxidant growth conditions, these facts can be used to optimize antioxidant production, however, firstly studies of antioxidant production by microalgae should be done. This work was focused to establish differences of antioxidants formation among microalgae species and elucidate some antioxidant properties of phycocyanin.

Material and Methods: Superoxide dismutase activity was performed by using a commercial kit and determined by spectrophotometry. Phycocyanin and carotenoids were quantified by spectrophotometry and tocopherols were analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic) reagent, scavenging and synergic antioxidant activities were also ascertained.

Results and Conclusion: The microalgae used in this study produces different amounts of superoxide dismutase, carotenoids, α, δ and γ-tocopherols, and phycocyanin. Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity varied according with the amount of antioxidants produced. Phycocyanin scavenge superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals work well to produce synergy with α-tocopherol, increasing protection of biomolecules against oxidation. One microalgae specie may be selected to produce one of the antioxidants mentioned above, but more detailed studies on growth phases are required to improve the antioxidant production. Microalgae has the potential to be considered as a natural antioxidants source.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Keywords

▪ Microalgae ▪ Phycocyanin ▪ Superoxide dismutase ▪ Tocopherols ▪ Synergic activity

References

Mubarak M, Shaija A, Suchithra TV. A review on the extraction of lipid microalgae for biodiesel production. Algal Res. 2015; 7: 117-123. doi: 10.1016/j.algal.2014.10.008

Shanab SMM, Mostafa SSM, Shalaby EA, Mahmoud GI. Aqueous extracts of microalgae exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2: 608-615. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60106-3

Kalogeropoulos N, Chiou A, Gavala E, Christea M, Andrikopoulos NK. Nutritional evaluation and bioactive microconstituens (carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols and squalene) of raw and roasted chicken fed on DHA-rich microalgae. Food Res Int. 2010; 43: 2006-2013. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2010.05.018

Shebis Y, Iluz D, Kinel-Tahan Y, Dubinsky Z, Yehoshua Y. Natural antioxidants: Function and sources. Food and Nut Sci. 2013; 4: 643-649. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.46083

Kuddus M, Sing P, Thomas G, Ali A. Production of c-phycocyanin and its potential applications. pp. 283-299. In: Biotechnology of bioactive compounds: sources and applications. Gupta VK, Tuohy MG, Lohani M, O´Donovan A, editors. Wiley-Blackwell Ltd; 2015.

Kelman D, Posner EK, McDermid KJ, Tabandera NK, Wright PR, Wright AD. Antioxidant activity of hawaiian marine algae. Mar Drugs 2012; 10: 403-416. doi: 10.3390/md10020403

Vadlapudi V. Antioxidant activities of marine algae: a review. pp. 189-203. In: Medicinal plants as antioxidant agents: Understanding their mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy. Capasso A editor. Research Signpost e-books; 2012. ISBN: 978-81-308-0509-2

Sharma P, Jha AB, Dubey RS, Pessarakli M. Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and antioxidative defense mechanism in plants under stressful conditions. J. Bot. 2012: Article id: 217037, 26 pages. doi: 10.1155/2012/217037

Gupta KJ, Igamberdiev AU. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species signaling and communication in plants cells: an overview: In: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species signaling and communication in plants. Springer Int. Publishing Switzerland; 2014; 23: 1-14 doi:10.1007/978-3-319-10079-1_1

Ahmad P, Sarwat M, Sharma S. Reactive oxygen species, antioxidants and signaling in plants. J Plant Biol. 2008; 51(3): 167-173. doi: 10.1007/BF03030694

Goh LP, Fatimah MY, Perumal K. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids and tocopherols in marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp. and Chaetoceros sp. Mal J Nutr. 2009; 15: 77-86.

Márquez FJ, Nishio, N, Nagai S, Sasaki K. Enhancement of biomass and pigment production during growth of Spirulina platensis in mixotrophic culture. J Chem Tech Biotechnol. 1995; 62(2):159-164. doi: 10.1002/jctb.280620208/pdf

Fredriksoon S, Elwinger K, Pickova J. Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of egg yolk as an effect microalgae addition to feed formula for laying hens. Food Chem. 2006; 99: 530-537. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.018

Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biol Med. 1999; 26(9/10): 1231-1237.

Gülçin İ, Beydemir S, Alici HA, Elmastas M, Büyükokuroğlu ME. In vitro antioxidant properties of morphine. Pharmacol Res. 2004; 49(1): 59-66. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2003.07.012

Keser S, Celik S, Turkoglu S, Yilmaz Ö, Turkoglu I. Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and total antioxidant activity of hawthorn. Chem. J. 2012; 2(1): 9-12. ISSN: 2049-954X

Durmaz Y. Vitamin E (-tocopherol) production by the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata (Eustigmatophyceae) in nitrogen limitation. Aquaculture. 2007; 272: 717-722. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.07.213

Durmaz Y, Monteiro M, Bandarra N, Gökpinar S, Isik O. The effect of low temperature on fatty acid composition and tocopherols of the red microalga Porphyridium cruentum. J Appl Phycol. 2007; 19: 223-227. doi: 10.1007/s10811-006-9127-6

Bong SC, Loh SP. A study of fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of lipid extracted from marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata and Tetraselmis suecica, using solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. Int Food Res J. 2013; 20: 721-729

Soni A, Duvey M, Verma M, Dhankhar R, Kaushal V, Atri R, Sabharwal R. Revisiting the role of phycocyanin in current clinical practice. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2015; 6(11): 4588-4600. doi: 10.13040//IJPSR.0975-8232.6(11).4588-00

Gantar M, Simovic D, Djilas S, Gonzalez WW, Miksovka J. Isolation, characterisation and antioxidative activity of c-phycocyanin from Limnothrix sp. Strain 37-2-1. J Biotechnol. 2012; 159: 21-26

Nimse SB, Pal D. Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and their reaction mechanisms. RSC Adv. 2015; 5: 27986-28006. doi: 10.1039/C4RA13315C

Lee J, Hou J, Huang H, Chang F, Yeh C, Tang J, et al., Marine algal natural products with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Cancer Cell Int. 2013; 13:55




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/afb.v5i1.17884

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.