Introduction: There is considerable controversy on the accuracy of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) in prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children. Therefore, the present study intends to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of the value of this biomarker in predicting AKI in children.
Methods: An extensive search was performed on the Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases by the end of 2019. Cohort and case-control studies on children were included. Urinary KIM-1 levels were compared between AKI and non-AKI groups. Findings were reported as an overall standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Also, the overall area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of KIM-1 in predicting AKI in children was calculated.
Results: Data from 13 articles were included. Urinary KIM-1 levels in children with stage 1 AKI were higher than the non-AKI group only when assessed within the first 12 hours after admission (SMD = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.07 to 1.84; p = 0.034). However, urinary KIM-1 levels in children with stage 2-3 AKI were significantly higher than non-AKI children (p <0.01) at all times. The AUC of urinary KIM-1 in predicting AKI in children was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.62 to 0.77).
Conclusion: Based on the available evidence, KIM-1 seems to have moderate value in predicting AKI in children. Since previous meta-analyses have provided other urinary and serum biomarkers that have better discriminatory accuracy than KIM-1, so it had better not to use KIM-1 in predicting AKI in children.
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