Introduction: The duration and severity of neutropenia directly correlate with the incidence of life-threatening infections. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and associated factors of mortality in febrile neutropenia patients.
Method: This retrospective cross sectional study was conducted on all febrile neutropenia patients who were admitted to oncology department of two educational hospitals, Tehran, Iran, from 2011 to 2016. Available patients’ data regarding baseline characteristics, treatment, and outcome were collected and analyzed using SPSS 21.
Results: 357 patients with the mean age of 50.9±17.7 years were studied (59.7% female). Mean white blood cell count of the studied patients was 715.1 ± 270.4 (100 – 1400) cells/mm3. The absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of all patients was <500 cells/mm3. The most frequent sources of malignancy in studied patients were gastrointestinal (35.9%), breast (22.4%), and sarcoma (15.7%), respectively. The mean time interval between initiation of treatment in ED and increase of ANC to > 500 cells/mm3 was 2.45 ± 2.1 (1 – 16) days. 186 (52.1%) subjects reached ANC>500 cells/ mm3 after 2-5 days of hospitalization. The rate of hospital mortality was 5.3% (338 (94.7%) survived). The correlation between gender (p = 0.11), temperature (p = 0.123), number of ED visits (p = 0.765), presenting clinical manifestation (p = 0.201), source of malignancy (p= 0.328), presence of metastasis (p = 0.69), positive urine culture (p = 0.45), positive blood culture (p = 0.62), time from last chemotherapy (p = 0.677), and time to reach ANC>500 cells/mm3 (p = 0.739) with mortality was not significant.
Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, the rate of hospital mortality in patients with febrile neutropenia was 5.3%. Older age and lower white blood cell count were among the significant associated factors of mortality in this series.
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