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Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Emergency Medical Services Staff in Bleeding Control of Trauma Patients; a Cross sectional Study

Yaser Sharifi, Malahat Nikravan Mofard, Maryam Jamsahar, Malihe Nasiri, Mehdi Safari



Introduction: External hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable death due to trauma and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) staff members play a vital role in the frontline of trauma management. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of EMS staff in bleeding control.

Methods: This knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was conducted to assess the educational needs of EMS staff of Hormozgan province, Iran, regarding the bleeding control of trauma patients, during 2019. The participants were randomly selected and then their knowledge, attitude, and practice in management of hemorrhage and hemorrhagic shock were assessed using two researcher-made scenario-based questionnaires and one checklist.

Results: The scores for knowledge of the EMS staff regarding actions during complete amputation,  status of injured patients, and medical measures during transfer of injured patients were 3.22 ± 0.68,  2.28 ± 0.83,  and  2.29 ± 0.62, respectively. The average participants' attitude scores regarding the fear of bleeding, the importance of bleeding control, and confidence in bleeding control were 2.09±0.56, 2.4±0.58, and 1.76±0.55, respectively. The findings indicated that mean practice score was 1.72 ± 0.46 in capillary hemorrhage control, 1.41 ± 0.25 in venous bleeding control, 1.47 ± 0.25 in arterial bleeding control, and 1.56±0.27 in control of bleeding in the amputee limb.

Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude, and practice of EMS staff regarding bleeding control were moderate, positive and appropriate, and incomplete, respectively. Since bleeding is a life threatening status and EMS staff skills are critical in this issue, it seems that we need to provide continuous education in this regard.


Hemorrhage; advanced trauma life support care; wounds and injuries; health knowledge, attitudes, practice


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/aaem.v8i1.420

DOI (PDF): https://doi.org/10.22037/aaem.v8i1.420.g704

DOI (HTML): https://doi.org/10.22037/aaem.v8i1.420.g776