Introduction: Endotracheal suctioning is a method commonly used to clean airway secretions in patients under mechanical ventilation (MV). This study aimed to compare the effects of open and closed suction methods on the occurrence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP).
Methods: This comparative study was carried out on adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients in need of MV for more than 48 hours, from October 2018 to January 2019. Patients were randomly allocated to either closed tracheal suction system (CTSS) group or open tracheal suction system (OTSS) group. Patients were monitored for developing VAP within 72 hours of intubation and the findings were compared between groups.
Results: 120 cases with the mean age of 57.91±19.9 years were randomly divided into two groups (56.7% male). The two groups were similar regarding age (p = 0.492) and sex (p = 0.713) distribution. 22 (18.3%) cases developed VAP (12 (20%) in OSST group and 10 (16.7%) in CSST; p = 0.637). The most prevalent bacterial causes of VAP were Acinetobacter_Baumannii (72.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (18.2%), and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (9.1%), respectively. There was not any significant difference between groups regarding the mean duration of remaining under MV (p = 0.623), mean duration of hospitalization (p = 0.219), frequency of VAP (p = 0.637), and mortality (p = 0.99).
Conclusion: It seems that type of endotracheal suction system (OSST vs. CSST) had no effect on occurrence of VAP and other outcomes such as duration of need for MV and ICU stay as well as mortality.
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