ISSN: 2008-496x

Vol. 4



Research/Original Articles

Samples of participants’ writing were scored by two raters using TOEFL writing scoring rubric. The readability index of each text was calculated through the use of six readability formulae and graphs, i.e., Flesch-Kincaid index, Reading Ease index, FOG index, SMOG formula, Fry’s graph, and Dale-Chall readability index. The scores given to each essay were later compared to the obtained readability indices through the use of Spearman rho correlation coefficient formula. The correlation coefficients obtained ranged from .05 to .15, none of which significant. This indicates that readability index of a text and the writing assessment procedure through holistic rubrics are dealing with two different constructs and have very little in common. This also calls into question the reliability and validity of some computerized assessment programs such as PEG, LSA, or E-rater, which take into account factors very similar to those examined in readability formulae.


A comparative study of Tacrolimus versus Cyclosporine as immunosuppression for kidney transplant recipients

Dariyush Raeisi, Hamidreza Omrani, Farid Najafi, Abdolreza Mahruei, Farhad Shavisizadeh, Mohammad Erfan Zare, Atefeh Nasir Kansestani, Nazanin Keshavarz

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

Kidney transplantation is the most common transplantation in the world. Annually, a large number of patients that have chronic renal failure are undergoing renal transplantation and the major subject about these patients is the rejection of graft that should be controlled by immunosuppressive agents.  The aim of this study is investigation of the effect of Cyclosporin against Tacrolimus in patients with kidney transplantation. This study was performing between 2010 and 2012 on all patients who had kidney transplantation and refer to Imam Reza hospital from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. 100 patients, aged 18–60 years, with end-stage renal disease were administered either Tacrolimus (n=49) or Cyclosporine (n=51). In both groups, Cellept could be discontinued from day 92 onwards. Corticosteroid treatment comprised methylprednisolone boluses followed by a rapid prednisone taper from 20 mg (day 2) to 5 mg (day 43 and thereafter). Patients followed up 12 months.

In the Tacrolimus treatment group, 7 grafts (14%) were lost and 8 (16%) grafts were lost in the Cyclosporine treatment group between months 0 and 12 and there is no significant different between these groups (P= 0.845). No cases were diagnosed with biopsy-proven chronic rejection at months 0 and 12. Mean serum creatinine concentrations were 1.8 ± 1.5 mg/dl in the Tacrolimus group and 2.3 ±2.9 in the Cyclosporine group by month 12 (P= 0.348). these data are consistent with previously published observations and confirm that Tacrolim us is a highly efficacious baseline immunosuppressant for patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression may promote long-term benefits with regard to graft functio n and graft survival.

Dietary folate intake and concentration of folate in serum and red blood cell in a group of female university students in Tehran, Iran

Marjan Bazhan, Arezoo Haghighian Roudsari, Maryan Shokouhi, Shiva Mehran, Hasan Ardestani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

Adequate intake of folate has an important role in the prevention of nutritional anemia and other complications in childbearing age women. This study was undertaken to determine dietary folate intake and concentration of folate in serum and red blood cell (RBC) in female students of a medical university in Tehran, the capital of Iran.  In this cross sectional study, 346 female students were randomly selected from students' lists of eight schools at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Those who were interested and eligible participated in this study. For each student, questionnaires about general characteristics were completed. Dietary folate intake was assessed by 3 days food recall questionnaire. These data were analyzed by Food Processor (FP). Folate in serum and RBC were determined by Radio Immunoassay (RIA).  The results showed that mean age and body mass index in these students were 21.4±4.2 yrs and 22.2±3.2 kg/m2,respectively.  Mean of 3 days folate intake was 239.4±101.8 µg/d. The majority of subjects (93%) did not meet the reference dietary intake for folate. Mean serum folate levels in whole population was 7.8±3.6 ng/ml and RBC folate was 249.6±124.9 ng/ml. No correlation was found between folate concentrations in serum and RBC with folate intake from food. The result of this study showed that folate intake of students is very low. Therefore, appropriate intervention is necessary for adequate intake of folate.


Effect of modified starch used alone or in combination with wheat flour on the sensory characteristics of beef sausage

Mehrdad Mohammadi, Firouz Oghabi, Tirang-Reza Neyestani, Iman Hasani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013


The effects of modified waxy maize starch (MWMS) (1–3.25%) on the sensory characteristics of 60% beef sausages were investigated by replacing the varying levels of sunflower oil or both sunflower oil and wheat flour (WF). The addition of MWMS improved the red color, the palatability, and the overall acceptability compared to the control sausages. The Color was medially and positively correlated with firmness. The correlations between color and taste and between taste with juiciness and firmness were weak and positive. The significant correlations were not observed between palatability and overall acceptability and with the other sensory characteristics. Juiciness was negatively correlated with firmness but was not significantly different. As a result, MWMS offset the effects of lowering the fat content.




Comparative Study of Serum levels of Granzyme H & Estrogen In Patients Suffering From Breast Cancer

Behnoosh Tahbaz lahafi, Houshang Amirrassouli, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Saeed Namaki, Faranak Kazerouni, Ali Rahimipour, Jahangir Mohammadzadeh

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

GranymeH is a functional cytotoxic serine protease of NK cell granules,which expands the cell death-inducing repertoire of innate immune system.The purpose of this study was to determine GranymeH(GZMH)level in breast cancer(BC) and healty women.This study was performed on 30 patients with BC and 30 healty woman.GZMH and Estrogen levels were measured in cancer patients  and healty women subsequently using ELISA and Radioimmunoassay(RIA) methods. Mean GZMH value was lower in BC than healty women(p<0.0001) and  mean Estrogen level was  higher  in BC patients  in comparison to healty women (p<0.003).Our finding indicates probability of existance of suppressor or a problem in production of GZMH in cancer patients

Comparative study of serum levels of Perforin in Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia patients

Jahangir Mohammadzade, Houshang Amirrasouli, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Babak Javanmard, Faranak Kazerouni, Saeed Namaki, Ali Rahimipour, Behnoosh Tahbaz lahafi, Meisam Mahdavi, Alireza Sedighi Moghadam

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

Perforin(p) is the primary mediator of short term cytotoxicity, it is accumulated in response to proinflammatory  cytokines and stored in T lymphocyte , NK cells and NKT cells are released upon activation. Perforin is a prototypical cytotoxic molecule involved in cell mediated immunity against various pathogens , alloantigens and particularly different tumors.The purpose of this study was to determine perforin level in prostate cancer (P.Ca) and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) This is study was performed on 59 patients consisting of 28 patients with P.Ca and 31 patients with BPH.Perforin and PSA levels were measured in cancer and BPH patients  using ELISA method.  
Mean Perforin value was significantly lower in P.Ca patients than in BPH patients ( p < 0.01)  where as mean serum PSA level was significantly higher in the cancer patients in comparison to the BPH group (P < 0.01 Our finding indicate probability of problem in expression of cytotoxic molecule ,perforin in and around the tumor.

Analysis of longitudinal binary outcomes in clinical trials with low percentage of missing values

Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Erfan Ghasemi, Farid Zayeri, Saeed Asgary, Mahshid Namdari

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

In interventional or observational longitudinal studies, the issue of missing values is one of the main concepts that should be investigated. The researcher's main concerns are the impact of missing data on the final results of the study and the appropriate methods that missing values should be handled. Regarding the role and the scale of the variable that missing values have been occurred and the structure of missing values, different methods for analysis have been presented. In this article, the impact of missing values on a binary response variable, in a longitudinal clinical trial with three follow up sessions has been investigated Propensity Score, Predictive Model Based and Mahalanobis imputation strategies with complete case and available data methods have been used for dealing with missing values in the mentioned study. Three models; Random intercept, Marginal GEE and Marginalized Random effects models were implemented to evaluate the effect of covariates. The percentage of missing responses in each of the treatment groups, throughout the course of the study, differs from 6.8 to 14.1. Although, the estimate of variance component in random intercept and marginalized random effect models were highly significant (p <0.001) the same results were obtained for the effect of independent variables on the response variable with different imputation strategies. In our study according to the low missing percentage, there were no considerable differences between different methods that were used for handling missing data.

The influence of freezing conditions on the organoleptic attributes of Iranian leafy vegetable foods

Mohammad Reza Koushki, Mehrdad Mohammadi, Nasrin Haji Seyed Javadi, Rozita Komeily, Masoumeh Moslemy, Fariba Seyed Ahmadian, Hakimeh Zali

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

The edible leafy vegetables contain nutritional ingredients that are necessary for human health and it is important that nutrients protection be monitored during processing and storage. The aim of this study was to study some organoleptic attributes of a very popular Iranian meal named Coco-Sabzi, which was prepared with a mixture of edible grinded leafy vegetable pre-stored at different frozen conditions. So, by sensorial evaluation we can conclude about nutritional loss of products. The mixture of five edible grinded leafy vegetables including Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum, Lepidium sativum, M. spicata (M. sativa), Ocimum basilicum and Allium porrum were stored at -9, -12 and -18oC for 120, 150 and 180 days. The organoleptic attribute of the prepared Coco-Sabzi was compared with the above three different time-temperature combinations during the frozen storage period. Results indicated that the best colors were observed at -18, -12 and -9oC, respectively. Taste and overall acceptability at -18oC after 120 and 150 days and also at -12oC after 180 days ranked 1st (P< 0.05). Data analysis showed that the color, taste and overall acceptability of samples were not statistically different at three different time-temperature combinations during the frozen storage period. As a result, organoleptic attribute during six months of frozen storage was affected by freezing temperature, not by frozen storage period

Does three months genistein and daidzein in the form of soy protein supplementation have any effects on bone formation markers after menopause?

Arezoo Haghighian Roudsari, Masoud Kimiagar, Bagher Larijani, Mona Zamanian Azodi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by a sharp decrease in estrogen levels leading to an increased rate of bone remodeling. Dietary supplements are preferred as alternative therapeutic options for many women instead of estrogen therapy. These alternative therapies include the use of natural substances such as soy isoflavones due to their weak estrogenic activity and affinity for estrogen receptors.Present study was carried out as a "before and after clinical trial" on 25 postmenopausal women aged 45-64 years. Soy protein at 35g level containing 98.3mg isoflavones (containing 47.2 genistein and 37.8 daidzein) were given to subjects daily for 12 weeks. Blood and urine samplings were done in 3 stages, in the beginning and at the end of 6th and 12th week. Repeated measurement analysis was employed to analyze any possible changes in food intake and biochemical variables in 3 stages. The level of significance was set at below 5 percent (P<0.05). Mean body mass index and physical activity level had no change and mean daily intake of macronutrients and important micronutrients were not different at 6 and 12 weeks compared to the start of the study The results showed a total serum alkaline phosphatase (TALP) significant increase while the other bone formation indicators namely osteocalcin and insulin growth factor binding protein (IGFBP3) did not change significantly. These data suggest that soy protein or its isoflavones may increase bone formation by supplementation.

Biclustering Algorithm for Embryonic Tumor Gene Expression Dataset: LAS Algorithm

Hamid Alavi Majd, Soodeh Shahsavari, Soheila Khodakarim, Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabaei, Bi bi Fatemeh Nobakht Motlagh Ghochani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

An important step in considering of gene expression data is obtained groups of genes that have similarity patterns. Biclustering methods was recently introduced for discovering subsets of genes that have coherent values across a subset of conditions. The LAS algorithm relies on a heuristic randomized search to find biclusters. In this paper, we introduce biclustering LAS algorithm and then apply this procedure for real value gene expression data. In this study after normalized data, LAS performed. 31 biclusters were  discovered that 26 of them were for positive gene expression values and others were for negative. Biological validity for LAS procedure in biological process, in molecular function and in cellular component were 77.96% , 62.28% and 74.39% respictively. The result of biological validation of LAS algorithm in this study had shown LAS algorithm effectively convenient in discovering good biclusters.

Effect of shortening type on the rheological characteristics of cookie dough

Roghaieh Pakdaman Lahiji, Mehrdad Mohammadi, Masoumeh Moslemy, Pooneh Aminigram

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

The effect of four types of shortening including a commercially vegetable oil (as control), palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), and a blend of the latter two oils with rapeseed oil (BF) on the rheological properties of cookie dough was determined by using dynamic oscillatory measurement testing. All of the obtained dough treatments showed weak liquid viscoelastic behavior. Their storage (G) and loss (G) moduli were almost the same with a loss tangent (tan δ) value of about 1. G was greater than G in most of the measured frequency range. Both G and G were frequency dependent and decreased with increasing of frequency. Differing oil compositions were found to differently affect on the overall strength of the doughs. The control dough showed the lowest frequency dependence. At lower frequencies, PO dough had the same consistency as the control, but at higher frequencies, its interaction was reduced leading to a weaker system. PS and BF doughs had stronger systems with higher values of G and G at low frequencies; both showed a dramatic drop in the values of G and G at about 1 Hz. After this frequency, they showed similar rheological profile to the control. Baking test showed that the final quality of the baked products was significantly different in both appearance and internal texture.

Effect of eight weeks endurance exercise on liver enzymes in stopping drug women with methadone

Mohammad Reza Asad, Farah Haddadi, Mazhar Rostami Nejad, Saied Sokhtehzari

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

Previous studies indicated that endurance exercise decreases levels of liver enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of endurance exercise on liver enzymes in eight weeks in Iranian women who are stopping the drug with methadone. sixty Iranian women prisoners including 30 cases as experimental group and 30 volunteers served as control. The mean age, height, weight, percent of BF, BMI and vo2max of experimental group was 33/8 years, 162/2 cm, 62/2 kg, 33/10, 24/22 and 16/18 ml/kg respectively. Experimental group was should run with 65%vo2max for 2 weeks (3 sessions in a week and for 25 minutes), with 65-75% vo2max for 3 weeks (3 sessions in a week for 35 minutes) and with 75-85% vo2max for 3 weeks (3 sessions in a week for 40 minutes). The blood samples were collected in amount of 5 ml 48 hours before the first session and after the last session of the protocol. Other causes of abnormal liver enzymes such as hepatitis and autoimmune disorders etc. were excluded. The level of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) between experimental group and control group in post-test was not significant. But it was significantly differenced for level of AST (aspartate aminotransferase) when we compared the groups. On the other hands, the level of ALT and AST in post-test in contrast with pre-test in experimental group was not significant. The result of this study showed that endurance exercise for eight weeks did not normalize the level of ALT and AST of the study group. Therefore more investigation such as diet habits, demographic and other risk factors is recommended for these types of patients.

Nutritional status and dietary intake among adolescent girls

Aazam Doustmohammadian, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Sorayya Doustmohammadian, Mitra Abtahi, Minoo Shahani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

Nutritional status during adolescence plays an important role in human lifecycle. The aim of this study was Nutritional status and dietary intake among adolescent girls. In a cross sectional study, using two stage cluster sampling 256 adolescent girls were randomly selected from 8 Semnan secondary schools. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. In adolescents, anthropometric indices were defined based on the CDC 2000 cut-off points for age and gender-specific BMI. Data of energy and nutrient intake was collected with the 24-hour dietary recall and food record questionnaires. The results showed that the prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese was 5.7%, 77.7%, 11.7%, and 4.7% in Semnan adolescent girls, respectively.  In comparison with DRI recommended values, the intake of energy and some micronutrients such as vitamin B12, folate, calcium, zinc, and fiber was insufficient among adolescent girls in Semnan. Malnutrition (underweight and overweight) is higher than the expected rate. Findings of our study showed that micronutrients deficiency among adolescent girls is a major problem among adolescent girls in Semnan and prevention measures are necessary to induct.

Organelle Isolation for Proteomics: Mitochondria from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

Bahram Pooreydy, Mohieddin Jafari, Faezeh Tajik, Mehrdad Karimi, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Alireza Ghassempour, Hassan Rezadoost, Mahvash Khodabandeh

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

Mitochondria play key roles in many cell functions including energy production, fatty acid metabolism, pyrimidine biosynthesis, calcium homeostasis, and aging. They also regulate crucial signaling cascades such as apoptosis and oxidative stress. The proteome is often used to investigate the functional correlations on protein levels. Based upon the human, genome there is estimated 2000 to 2500 associated mitochondrial proteins, however, just over 600-800 have been identified at the protein level. For this reason, mitochondria contain a great number of proteins that have yet to be identified and characterized. The identification of these proteins can help in discovery of biological process. This protocol focuses on step-by-step procedure of mitochondrial proteome extraction from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) mitochondria. The isolation and preparation procedures described here require 6 hours approximately.

Efficacy of group obstetric consultation in mild to moderate anxiety of pregnancy

Marjaneh Dayhimi, Noorosadat Kariman, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Jamal Shams, Zeinab Hamzehgardeshi, Tahereh Tayebi, Seyyd Abdolreza Mortazavi Tabatabaee

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

Anxiety is a common mental disorder of pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes. Hence, preparation of effective approaches for reduction of anxiety is an issue of importance. Accordingly, this study was performed to determine the efficacy of group obstetric consultation on anxiety control in pregnant women in non-severe cases. In this randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women attending to a Health Care Center in Tehran, Iran from April 2010 to March 2012 with first pregnancy aging from 18 to 35 years and gestational age of eight to eighteen weeks were evaluated. They were randomly assigned into consultation and control groups. The consultation group was designed according to the different needs of pregnancy for five sessions in five weeks (each session 60 to 90 minutes) and the control group only received routine perinatal care. There was statistically significant difference between after-intervention scores in anxiety state (P=0.014); but the anxiety trait showed no difference (P=0.19). Also the changes in trait anxiety scores was more in consultation group compared with control group (P=0.002) that was also seen for anxiety state scores (P=0.0001). Totally, it may be concluded that group consultation is effective in reduction of state and trait anxiety in pregnant women with non-severe non-pathological cases of anxiety.

Dietary habits and nutrient intake in adolescent girls living in Northern Iran

Marjan Bazhan, Naser Kalantari, Anahita Houhiar-Rad, Hamid Alavi-Majd, Shiva Kalantari

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

Rapid changes in lifestyle and industrialization of communities have an important effect on food intake pattern of society. Regarding the lack of enough data about dietary habits and nutrient intake of adolescents in our society, this study was performed in a group of adolescent girls in Lahijan, North of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 400 high school girls aged 14-17 years selected by random stratified sampling. Nutritional data were collected by 24-hour dietary recall, food habits and food frequency questionnaires for all samples. The mean energy intake was 2338±611 kcal/d. The contributions of carbohydrate, protein and fat to the total energy intake were 59.3, 11.9 and 28.8%, respectively. The daily intake of energy obtained from breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks were 16.3, 23.5, 25.9 and 34.3%, respectively. The mean intakes of vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, phosphorous and zinc were below the Recommended Daily Allowances. The consumption of fresh vegetables and fruit was generally low. Twelve percent in total did not drink milk at all. Almost all the subjects had a prepared meal, most often in the evening, at least four times a week. Regarding the undesirable food pattern and proportions of nutrient intakes, it is necessary to development means of motivating adolescents to eat nutritionally rich foods, good for health and well-being.

Depression in university students can be considered as an indicator of mental health. Therefore, it is highly important to be concerned about their mental health. The present research was conducted for the purpose of investigating the depression level in paramedical students and the contributing factors.

This research is a cross-sectional study. The examined population included the students of a paramedical faculty and the sampling was done through census, selecting all the available students in the current semester. The questionnaire contained demographic questions and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which were filled out by the students. Then, the depression level of students was determined with regard to the demographic questions and how each one associated with depression. For data analysis, an independent T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and a correlation test were employed. In this research, the mean value and standard deviation score of students were 14.76 and 13.84 respectively. BS students scored 15.6, while MS and PhD students scored 7.7, which showed a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.001). The findings indicated that 20.6% of the students suffered from mild to moderate depression, while 9.9% of the students suffered from moderate to severe depression. The depression scores had no significant correlation with living place, marital status, gender, employment status, religious practice, previous semester GPA, and whether parents were alive. However, it had significant correlation with age(p=0.048), number of family members(p=0.004), satisfaction with study field(p=0.005), religious beliefs(p=0.028), extracurricular activities(p<0.001),, future career prospects(p=0.002), financial problems(p<0.001), satisfaction with relationships between family members(p<0.001), satisfaction with relationships between friends and classmates(p=0.003), satisfaction with relationships between university and faculty authorities(p=0.003),, as well as professors(p=0.022).Although some of the factors contributing to depression including age, number of family members and unpleasant life events cannot be prevented, most other factors or its results significantly leading to depression in students including extracurricular activities, satisfaction with relationships between family members, friends, classmates, university and faculty authorities, professors, and future career prospects can be controlled.

The nutrition knowledge level of physicians, nurses and nutritionists in some educational hospitals

Morteza Abdollahi, Anahita Houshiarrad, Mitra Abtahi, Mina Esmaeli, Hamed Pouraram, Mohammad Reza Khoshfetrat, Mohammad Mehdi Shakori, Saeed Heidari Keshel

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

Nutritional care is an important part of medical care of patients and plays a key role in improvement, prevention and control of malnutrition in hospitals. The current study aimed to determine the nutrition knowledge level of doctors, nurses and nutritionists in some teaching hospitals in Tehran in 2008. In a cross-sectional study a total of 198 samples including 28 nutritionists, 81 nurses and 89 physicians were selected using simple random sampling. The current study was conducted in 9 hospitals affiliated with the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU) in Tehran. A self-administered multiple choice questionnaire about different aspects of basic and clinical nutrition was completed. Then nutrition knowledge levels of each individual was determined by calculating correct knowledge, perceived knowledge and accuracy of knowledge scores. The median knowledge score of the nutritionists, physicians, and nurses was 85%,77%, and 75%, respectively. The median perceived knowledge of all the groups was above 90%. The mean accuracy score in the 3 groups of nutritionists, physicians and nurses was 87%,79%, and 76%, respectively. The results indicated that all groups have a poor knowledge, especially in clinical nutrition topics. Based on the current results, knowledge level of clinical staff is an effective factor in not paying attention to the importance of nutritional care as a part of medical care of the patients. Enhancing awareness level of all groups especially physicians and nutritionists in clinical division plays an important role in enhancing clinical nutrition care and treatment regime.

Review Article

Common Proteomic Technologies, Applications, and their Limitations

Anna Meyfour, Mostafa Rezaie Tavirani, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

Proteomics refers to the analysis of expression, localization, functions, posttranslational modifications, and interactions of proteins expressed by a genome at a specific condition and at a specific time. Current proteomic tools allow large-scale, high-throughput analyses for the detection, identification, and functional investigation of proteome. In this review, we have focused on the proteomics methods: gel-based and gel-free techniques and discussed their applications and challenges in the field of proteomics.


The structure Biology and Application of Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in Phytomedicine: With special up-to-date references to lectins

Abolfazl Movafagh, Kiandokht Ghanati, Davar Amani, Seyed Mohammad Mahdavi, Mehrdad Hashemi, Davood Zare Abdolahi, Hossein Darvish, Milad Gholami, Leyla HaghNejad, Sara Mosammami, Shamsi Safari, Reyhaneh Darehgazani, Mahnoosh Rahimi, Nilofar Safavi Naini, Mehdi Ghandehari Motlagh, Mahdi Zamani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 4, 5 February 2013

Lectins first discovered more than 100 years ago in plants, they are now known to be present throughout nature. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the lectin extract from the red kidney bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris), contain potent, cell agglutinating and mitogenic activities. They play a role in biological recognition phenomena involving cells and proteins towards medical applications. The present article is a brief review of the history of lectin in nature.  By reviewing the web-based search for all types of peer review articles published, was initiated using ISI web of Sciences and Medline / PubMed, and other pertinent references on websites about lectins. Here, we present a brief account of 100-plus years of lectin research and show how these proteins have become the focus of intense interest for biologists and in particular for the research and applications in medicine. Phytohemagglutinin, has been widely used for mitotic stimulation to human lymphocytes, cell arrest, or apoptosis, potential sources for developing novel  pharmaceutical preparation    and intensive interest for health care services, biologist and phytomedicine  research can be considered