Editorial


Research/Original Articles


Kinetics of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Cellular Automaton Model Study

Mohammad Reza Gharib-Zahedi1, Mehrdad Ghaemi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2012), 22 August 2012
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v3i3.3482

We created a simple cellular automata (CA) model for hepatitis B infection dynamics associated with spatial structure performed under various ages of liver tissue correspond to different immune responses in order to study the effect of spatial heterogeneities on the dynamical evolution of a viral infection. The results of the simulations show biphasic nature of viral load decreases, as observed in the acute infection in real state. Our results also confirm the importance of the hepatocyte target cells, the spatial localization, and the local interactions on the dynamics of HBV infection, whereas models based on ordinary differential equations are not considered. Our model is quite simple with four states and only five parameters, however, the dynamics from the model qualitatively equivalent clinical data.

 

Effects of different heel heights on selected gait parameters of young undergraduate females

Maduabuchi Joseph Nwankwo, Afamefuna Victor Egwuonwu, Antoninus Obinna Ezeukwu, Chidubem Kamdilichukwu Nwafulume

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2012), 22 August 2012
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v3i3.3485

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different heel heights on selected gait parameters in a sample of young Nigerian females. A purposive sample of eighty apparently healthy undergraduates of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus participated in the study. Their mean age, height, and weight were 21.98± 1.83 years, 1.65±0.06 meters, 59.50±9.34 kilograms respectively. An ex post facto design was used to investigate the effect of different heel heights (3.2cm, 7.8cm and 11.0cm) on selected gait parameters. This was done using a prepared protocol and measurement of gait parameters were taken with a tape rule and stop watch respectively. One-way ANOVA was used to compare differences across the groups. Level of significance was set at 0.05. There were significant differences in mean values of selected gait parameters across the different heel heights for stride length, step length, stride width, cadence, and velocity respectively. However, with post hoc test, no significant difference exist in mean values between bare foot and low heel of all selected parameters for stride length, step length, and cadence respectively, barefoot and mid heel (p=0.142), and mid and high heel for stride width (p= 0.162) respectively. There was a significant difference exists only between low and high heel on velocity. As heel height increases, gait parameters such as stride length and step length shorten while the cadence increases and the stride width widens. It is recommended that to maintain comfort and reduce the adverse side effects associated with wearing the different heel height, women are advised to minimize putting on heeled shoes particularly the mid and high heels.

Hematoporphyrin encapsulated polymeric nanomicelles

Amir Houshang Barati, Peyman Hejazi, Hadi Hasanzadeh

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2012), 22 August 2012
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v3i3.3486

Nowadays, developements in nanotechnology have leeds an increased application of this newborn technology in cancer treatment. In this study, a stabilized micelle was developed to load HpD in order to be used in photodynamic treatment of cancer in an animal model. To construct micelles, Pluronic P-105 was used and stabilized to encapsulate HpD. This process includes a 24 h polymerization in which the first 3.5 h was in the presence of N2 purge and was continued at 65°C. In this reaction, NNDEA and benzoil peroxide (BP) were used for stabilization of micelles and initiation of reaction, respectively. DLS analysis of micelles revealed that the size of them before and after drug encapsulation was 14 nm and 23.5 nm, respectively. To assess drug loading, drug standard curve was obtained and its loading was obtained as 2 mg/ml. To extract free drug from complex, it was dialyzed against water and its stability profile was measured up to one month which was more than 80%. According to obtained results, this complex could be used to reduce side effects in photodynamic therapy. Besides, according to tumor characteristics and physical properties of micelles, it is possible to enhance drug release and uptake at tumor site.

Comparison of Fecal Calprotectin Levels in Iranian general population and army personnel

Pedram Azimzadeh, Shahrokh Iravani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2012), 22 August 2012
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v3i3.3487

     Fecal Calprotectin is released in colon by activated neutrophils. Investigation of diagnostic application of determination of fecal Calprotectin levels is considered by many researchers to compare between different colorectal diseases like Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). Due to the effect of nutrition habits on the inflammatory processes of bowel, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the level of fecal Calprotectin in healthy subjects in Iranian army personnel that have specific and the same nutrition habits, in comparison with non-military population and also make this test an in-house method in Army laboratories.

In this study a prospective and sample collection method used available samples (Convenience sampling). We collected stool samples from 108 subjects from Army personnel and 108 samples from non-military Iranian population with corresponding data collection form. Determination of Calprotectin levels was done by specific third generation quantitative ELISA method and statistics were done using SPSS software.The results showed that mean Calprotectin level in two included groups were 26.1 micrograms per gram in Army personnel group and 25.4 micrograms per gram in non-military control subjects. Fecal Calprotectin level in two studied groups wasn’t significantly different. Despite the little increase in Calprotectin levels in Army personnel group compared with control group this difference wasn’t statistically significant (P>0.05). We can conclude that the nutrition habits of army personnel could cause effects on inflammatory processes in digestive system. Determination of fecal Calprotectin levels as a cost effective and non invasive test could be used by military physicians for early diagnosis of inflammation in personnel by routine tests subjects. 

Hydatic cyst prevalence in slaughtered animals, A neglected health problem

Mohamamd Rostami Nejad, Somayeh Jahani-Sherafat, Kourosh Cheraghipour, Ehsan Nazemallhoseini Mojarad, Nilofar Taghipour, Mohammad Reza Zali

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2012), 22 August 2012
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v3i3.3488

Lorestan and other part of Iran are one of the important endemic focuses for the major zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic hydatid disease where several species of intermediate host are commonly infected with Echinococcus granulosus. Meat inspection records in a slaughtered house were used to determine the prevalence of Hydatidosis in sheep, cattle, and goats in Lorestan province (Aleshtar) located in South-West of Iran. The data were collected during a 5 year period from 2002 to 2006. A total of 40,431 animals (cattle 6993; sheep 14084; goats 19354) slaughtered in the 5-year period and overall 2885 (7.13%) lungs and 2885 (7.13%) livers and 1598 (3.95%) peritoneal cavity were contaminated by hydatid cyst. One thousand and eight hundred sixty eight (26.71%) out of 6993 of cattle, 2989/14084 (21.22%) of sheep and 2511/19354 (12.97%) of goats were infected by hydatid cyst in liver, lung and peritoneal cavity respectively. This study indicates that the highest prevalence of Hydatidosis was found in Aleshtar, Lorestan as compared to the rest of Iran (p<0.05). The annual prevalence of lung condemnations due to hydatidosis was increased from 8.3, 5 and 1.3% in Sep 2002 to Sep 2003 to 20.5, 8 and 5.5 % in Sep2005 to Sep2006 for cattle, sheep, and goats, respectively. An urgent attention is required to work on lack of awareness among farmers, lack of a policy to destroy the infected organs, prevention of access of dogs to raw offal’s and other responsible factors.Lorestan and other part of Iran are one of the important endemic focuses for the major zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic hydatid disease where several species of intermediate host are commonly infected with Echinococcus granulosus. Meat inspection records in a slaughtered house were used to determine the prevalence of Hydatidosis in sheep, cattle, and goats in Lorestan province (Aleshtar) located in South-West of Iran. The data were collected during a 5 year period from 2002 to 2006. A total of 40,431 animals (cattle 6993; sheep 14084; goats 19354) slaughtered in the 5-year period and overall 2885 (7.13%) lungs and 2885 (7.13%) livers and 1598 (3.95%) peritoneal cavity were contaminated by hydatid cyst. One thousand and eight hundred sixty eight (26.71%) out of 6993 of cattle, 2989/14084 (21.22%) of sheep and 2511/19354 (12.97%) of goats were infected by hydatid cyst in liver, lung and peritoneal cavity respectively. This study indicates that the highest prevalence of Hydatidosis was found in Aleshtar, Lorestan as compared to the rest of Iran (p<0.05). The annual prevalence of lung condemnations due to hydatidosis was increased from 8.3, 5 and 1.3% in Sep 2002 to Sep 2003 to 20.5, 8 and 5.5 % in Sep2005 to Sep2006 for cattle, sheep, and goats, respectively. An urgent attention is required to work on lack of awareness among farmers, lack of a policy to destroy the infected organs, prevention of access of dogs to raw offal’s and other responsible factors.

 

Long-term exposure to low frequency electro-magnetic fields of 50- and 217-Hz leads to learning and memory deficits in mice

Elaheh Nooshinfar, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Soheila Khodakarim

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2012), 22 August 2012
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v3i3.3489

 

      Electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation affects cellular and brain chemistry and function, resulting in deleterious effects such as free radicals formation, impaired DNA repair, reduced melatonin and blood brain barrier protection, and defects on learning and memory and other higher brain functions. In this paper the effects of low frequency EMF of 50- and 217 Hz, ranges often associated with common electronic devices such as televisions and cell phones were examined on learning and memory in adult male mice. Five groups (n=10 mice/group) of mice (1 control and 4 experimental) were initially trained for the passive avoidance (PA) test. They were then placed in devices creating EMF radiation with varying intensities (0.5 to 2 milli-Tesla, mT) and frequencies (50- and 217-Hz) for 2-weeks (16 hrs/day). Control mice received no radiation. Learning and memory was tested by the PA test and evaluated based on the following parameters: mean step through latency (STL), number of crossing (Cr#) and time in dark compartment (TDC). Results showed significant deficiencies in learning and memory in the EM-exposed mice compared to controls: mean STL decreased significantly (p<0.001) in the 50 Hz group (1 and 1.5 mT intensities).  In the 217 Hz group, STL also decreased in the 0.5 and 2 mT groups (p< 0.05).  There was a notable increase in mean Cr# for both groups and TDC for 50 Hz group. Results confirm that long-term exposure to EMF radiation of 50 and 217 Hz, imparts significant harmful changes on memory and learning, reiterating the need for preventive measures against such exposures.

Gene sets involved in prostate cancer based on differential expression

Hamid Alavi Majd, Soheila Khodakarim, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Farid Zayeri, Nasrin Dehghan Nayeri, Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabaee

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2012), 22 August 2012
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v3i3.3490

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men. In spite of on-going researches in this filed, the specific causes of prostate cancer are so far unknown. In this study, we used two methods of Gene Set Analysis to improve the biological interpretation of the observed expression patterns in prostate cancer. The Gene Set Analysis is a computational method to discover gene sets whose expression is associated with a phenotype of interest. In addition, we used these methods to search gene sets defined by KEGG and BioCarta. Although, our results showed that most of the gene sets were associated with prostate cancer in the Category and Hotelling’s T2 methods, the power of the Hotelling’s T2 was more than Category method in either KEGG or BioCarta gene sets. The concordance between the results of Pubmed articles and KEGG gene sets was more than the results of Pubmed articles and BioCarta gene sets.

Review Article


Proteomics Databases and Websites

Mohieddin Jafari, Ali Masoudi-Nejad

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 3 (2012), 22 August 2012
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v3i3.3491

Information avalanche (overload or expansion) in various scientific fields is a novel issue turned out by a number of factors considered necessary to facilitate their record and registration. Though, the biological science and its diverse fields like proteomics are not immune of this event and even may be as the event’s herald. On the other hand, time as the most valued anxiety of human has encountered a huge mass of information. Therefore, in order to maintain access and ease the understanding of information in several fields some emprises have been prepared. Bioinformatics is an upshot of this anxiety and emprise. Interestingly, proteomics through studying proteins collection in alive things has covered a great portion of bioinformatics. Consequently, a noteworthy outlook on proteomics related databases (DBs) and websites not only can help investigators to face the upcoming archive of databases but also estimate the volume of the needed facilitates. Furthermore, enrichment of the DBs or related websites must be the priority of researchers. Herein, by covering the major proteomics related databases and websites, we have presented a comprehensive classification to simplify and clarify their understanding and applications.