• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

The Effect of Intraspinal Micro Stimulation With Variable Stimulating Pattern in Adult Rat With Induction of Spinal Cord Injury in the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries

Mohaddeseh Hedayatzadeh, Hamid Reza Kobravi, Maryam Tehranipour




Background: Spinal cord injury is one of the diseases that, no specific treatment has yet found despite the variety of works that have done in this field. Different approaches to treat such injuries have investigated today. One of them is invasive intra-spinal interventions such as electrical stimulation. Therefore, in this study, the effect of the protocol for intra-spinal variable and fixed electrical stimulation has been investigated in order to recover from spinal cord injury. Methods: In the study, 18 Wistar male rats randomly divided into Three groups, including intra-spinal electrical stimulation (IES), IES with variable pattern of stimulation (VP IES) and a sham group. Animals initially subjected to induced spinal cord injury. After one week, the animal movement was recorded on the treadmill during practice using a camera and angles of the ankle joint were measured using the Tracker software. Then, the obtained data were analyzed by nonlinear evaluations in the phase space. Results: The motion analyses and kinematic analyses were carried out on all groups. According to the achieved results, the gait dynamics of the VP IES group has the most conformity to the gait dynamics of the healthy group. Also, the best quality of the balance preservation observed in the VP IES group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the IES with variable pattern of stimulation along with exercise therapy has significant gait restorative effects and increases the range of motion in rats with induced spinal cord injury.


Spinal cord injury; Motion recovery; Intraspinal microstimulation; Rat; Phase space; Geometric feature; Synergy pattern.


Thuret S, Moon LD, Gage FH. Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006;7(8):628-43. doi: 10.1038/nrn1955.

Fitch MT, Silver J. CNS injury, glial scars, and inflammation: Inhibitory extracellular matrices and regeneration failure. Exp Neurol. 2008;209(2):294-301. doi: 10.1016/j. expneurol.2007.05.014.

Capogrosso M, Milekovic T, Borton D, Wagner F, Moraud EM, Mignardot JB, et al. A brain-spine interface alleviating gait deficits after spinal cord injury in primates. Nature. 2016;539(7628):284-8. doi: 10.1038/nature20118.

Franz M, Richner L, Wirz M, von Reumont A, Bergner U, Herzog T, et al. Physical therapy is targeted and adjusted over time for the rehabilitation of locomotor function in acute spinal cord injury interventions in physical and sports therapy. Spinal Cord. 2018;56(2):158-67. doi: 10.1038/s41393-017- 0007-5.

Myckatyn TM, Mackinnon SE, McDonald JW. Stem cell transplantation and other novel techniques for promoting recovery from spinal cord injury. Transpl Immunol. 2004;12(3- 4):343-58. doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2003.12.017.

Rossignol S, Frigon A. Recovery of locomotion after spinal cord injury: some facts and mechanisms. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2011;34:413-40. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-061010-113746.

Ichiyama RM, Gerasimenko YP, Zhong H, Roy RR, Edgerton VR. Hindlimb stepping movements in complete spinal rats induced by epidural spinal cord stimulation. Neurosci Lett. 2005;383(3):339-44. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2005.04.049.

Harvey LA. Physiotherapy rehabilitation for people with spinal cord injuries. J Physiother. 2016;62(1):4-11. doi: 10.1016/j. jphys.2015.11.004.

Gerasimenko YP, Avelev VD, Nikitin OA, Lavrov IA. Initiation of locomotor activity in spinal cats by epidural stimulation of the spinal cord. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2003;33(3):247-54.

Granat MH, Ferguson AC, Andrews BJ, Delargy M. The role of functional electrical stimulation in the rehabilitation of patients with incomplete spinal cord injury--observed benefits during gait studies. Paraplegia. 1993;31(4):207-15. doi: 10.1038/sc.1993.39.

Zhu Y, Uezono N, Yasui T, Nakashima K. Neural stem cell therapy aiming at better functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Dev Dyn. 2018;247(1):75-84. doi: 10.1002/ dvdy.24558.

Sivaramakrishnan A, Solomon JM, Manikandan N. Comparison of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) for spasticity in spinal cord injury - A pilot randomized cross-over trial. J Spinal Cord Med. 2018;41(4):397-406. doi: 10.1080/10790268.2017.1390930.

Raineteau O, Schwab ME. Plasticity of motor systems after incomplete spinal cord injury. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001;2(4):263-73. doi: 10.1038/35067570.

Steuer I, Guertin PA. Central pattern generators in the brainstem and spinal cord: an overview of basic principles, similarities and differences. Rev Neurosci. 2019;30(2):107- 64. doi: 10.1515/revneuro-2017-0102.

Abbinanti MD, Zhong G, Harris-Warrick RM. Postnatal emergence of serotonin-induced plateau potentials in commissural interneurons of the mouse spinal cord. J Neurophysiol. 2012;108(8):2191-202. doi: 10.1152/ jn.00336.2012.

Acevedo J, Santana-Almansa A, Matos-Vergara N, Marrero- Cordero LR, Cabezas-Bou E, Diaz-Rios M. Caffeine stimulates locomotor activity in the mammalian spinal cord via adenosine A1 receptor-dopamine D1 receptor interaction and PKA-dependent mechanisms. Neuropharmacology. 2016;101:490-505. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.10.020.

Rossignol S, Dubuc R, Gossard JP. Dynamic sensorimotor interactions in locomotion. Physiol Rev. 2006;86(1):89-154. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00028.2005.

Seo K, Chung S-J, Slotine J-JE. CPG-based control of a turtle-like underwater vehicle. Auton Robots. 2010;28(3):247-69. doi: 10.1007/s10514-009-9169-0.

Rybak IA, Shevtsova NA, Lafreniere-Roula M, McCrea DA. Modelling spinal circuitry involved in locomotor pattern generation: insights from deletions during fictive locomotion. J Physiol. 2006;577(Pt 2):617-39. doi: 10.1113/ jphysiol.2006.118703.

Boyce VS, Tumolo M, Fischer I, Murray M, Lemay MA. Neurotrophic factors promote and enhance locomotor recovery in untrained spinalized cats. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98(4):1988-96. doi: 10.1152/jn.00391.2007.

Steuer I, Guertin PA. Central pattern generators in the brainstem and spinal cord: an overview of basic principles, similarities and differences. Rev Neurosci. 2019;30(2):107- 64. doi: 10.1515/revneuro-2017-0102.

Deng K, Szczecinski NS, Arnold D, Andrada E, Fischer MS, Quinn RD, et al. Neuromechanical Model of Rat Hindlimb Walking with Two-Layer CPGs. Biomimetics (Basel). 2019;4(1). doi: 10.3390/biomimetics4010021.


  • There are currently no refbacks.