Background: Chronopsychology researches claim that cognitive processes performance during learning in the educational environment in times of the day and days of the week fluctuate, and working memory is essential among these cognitive processes. The research aimed to study the rhythm of daily and weekly working memory performance of preschoolers based on their chronotype (morningness and eveningness) orientation.
Methods: The research method is causal-comparative. The participants are 100 preschool children in Tehran that were selected based on purposive sampling. Their working memory was tested at different time intervals of (8, 11, 13, and 15) and weekly (Saturday, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday). Saturday also considered as the first day of the week. Data collection instrument were children morningness-eveningness preference (CMEP) in the form of questionnaire and working memory test. Data analysis based on a mixed analysis of variance.
Results: The results showed that preschoolers working memory performance during different days of the week and time of day was different (P < 0.01). There was a significant difference between children in different groups regarding memory at different hours of the day, but on different days of the week, there was no significant difference in memory performance (P < 0.01).
Conclusion: According to the findings, teachers and clinicians are suggested to consider the importance of circadian rhythm parameters in assessing cognitive function in patients and healthy people. Awareness of individual differences of the morningness-eveningness type can be very effective in designing training programs and preventive health associated matters with each type.
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