• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

Detection and Prediction of Absence Seizures Based on Nonlinear Analysis of the EEG in Wag/Rij Animal Model

Saleh Lashkari, Ali Sheikhani, Mohammad Reza Hashemi Golpayegani, Ali Moghimi, Hamidreza Kobravi




 Background: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with a prevalence of 1% of the world population. Absence epilepsy is a form of generalized seizures with Spike wave discharge in EEG. Epileptic patients have frequent absence seizures that cause immediate loss of consciousness.

Methods: In this study, it has been tried to explore whether EEG changes can effectively detect epilepsy in animal model applying non-linear features. To predict the occurrence of absence epilepsy, a long-term EEG signal has been recorded from frontal cortex in seven Wag/Rij rats. After preprocessing, the data was transferred to the phase space to extract the brain system dynamic and geometric properties of this space. Finally, the ability of each features to predict and detect absence epilepsy with two criteria of predictive time and the accuracy of detection and its results were compared with previous studies.

Results: The results indicate that the brain system dynamic changes during the transition from free-seizure to pre-seizure and then seizure. Proposed approach diagnostic characteristics yielded 97% accuracy of absence epilepsy diagnosis indicating that due to the nonlinear and complex nature of the system and the brain signal, the use of methods consistent with this nature is important in understanding the dynamic transfer between different epileptic seizures.

Conclusion: By changing the state of the absence Seizures, the dynamics are changing, and the results of this research can be useful in real-time applications such as predicting epileptic seizures.


Absence Epilepsy; Electroencephalogram; Phase Space; Nonlinear Attractor; Geometric Properties


Li J, Yan J, Liu X. Ouyang, G. Using Permutation Entropy to Measure the Changes in EEG Signals During Absence Seizures. Entropy. 2014;16(6):3049-3061.

Gorji A, Mittag C, Shahabi P, Seidenbecher T, Pape HC. Seizure-related activity of intralaminar thalamic neurons in a genetic model of absence epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis. 2011 Jul;43(1):266-74.

Meeren HK, Pijn JP, Van Luijtelaar EL, Coenen AM, Lopes da Silva FH. Cortical focus drives widespread corticothalamic networks during spontaneous absence seizures in rats. J Neurosci. 2002 Feb 15;22(4):1480-95.‏

Cavanna AE, Monaco F. Brain mechanisms of altered conscious states during epileptic seizures. Nat Rev Neurol. 2009 May;5(5):267-76.

Bai X, Vestal M, Berman R, Negishi M, Spann M, Vega C, et al. Dynamic time course of typical childhood absence seizures: EEG, behavior, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci. 2010 Apr 28;30(17):5884-93.

Killory BD, Bai X, Negishi M, Vega C, Spann MN, Vestal M, et al. Impaired attention and network connectivity in childhood absence epilepsy. Neuroimage. 2011 Jun 15;56(4):2209-17.

Blumenfeld H. Impaired consciousness in epilepsy. Lancet Neurol. 2012


Rosso OA, Mendes A, Berretta R, Rostas JA, Hunter M, Moscato P. Distinguishing childhood absence epilepsy patients from controls by the analysis of their background brain electrical activity (II): a combinatorial optimization approach for electrode selection. J Neurosci Methods. 2009 Jul 30;181(2):257-67.

Crunelli V, Cope DW, Terry JR. Transition to absence seizures and the role of

GABA(A) receptors. Epilepsy Res. 2011 Dec;97(3):283-9.

Kramer MA, Eden UT, Kolaczyk ED, Zepeda R, Eskandar EN, Cash SS. Coalescence and fragmentation of cortical networks during focal seizures. J Neurosci. 2010 Jul 28;30(30):10076-85.

Neymotin SA, Lee H, Fenton AA, Lytton WW. Interictal EEG discoordination in a rat seizure model. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2010 Dec;27(6):438-44.‏

Schindler K, Leung H, Elger CE, Lehnertz K. Assessing seizure dynamics by analysing the correlation structure of multichannel intracranial EEG. Brain. 2007 Jan;130(Pt 1):65-77.

Mormann F, Elger CE, Lehnertz K. Seizure anticipation: from algorithms to clinical practice. Curr Opin Neurol. 2006 Apr;19(2):187-93.

Mormann F, Andrzejak RG, Elger CE, Lehnertz K. Seizure prediction: the long and winding road. Brain. 2007 Feb;130(Pt 2):314-33.‏

Stacey W, Le Van Quyen M, Mormann F, Schulze-Bonhage A. What is the present-day EEG evidence for a preictal state? Epilepsy Res. 2011 Dec;97(3):243-51.

Li X, Ouyang G, Richards DA. Predictability analysis of absence seizures with permutation entropy. Epilepsy Res. 2007 Oct;77(1):70-4. ‏

Stacey WC, Litt B. Technology insight: neuroengineering and epilepsy-designing devices for seizure control. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2008 Apr;4(4):190-201.

Sitnikova E. Thalamo-cortical mechanisms of sleep spindles and spike-wave discharges in rat model of absence epilepsy (a review). Epilepsy Res. 2010 Mar;89(1):17-26.

Sitnikova E, van Luijtelaar G. Electroencephalographic precursors of spike-wave discharges in a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy: Power spectrum and coherence EEG analyses. Epilepsy Res. 2009 Apr;84(2-3):159-71.

van Luijtelaar G, Hramov A, Sitnikova E, Koronovskii A. Spike-wave discharges in WAG/Rij rats are preceded by delta and theta precursor activity in cortex and thalamus. Clin Neurophysiol. 2011 Apr;122(4):687-95.

Andrzejak RG, Lehnertz K, Mormann F, Rieke C, David P, Elger CE. Indications of nonlinear deterministic and finite-dimensional structures in time series of brain electrical activity: dependence on recording region and brain state. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2001 Dec;64(6 Pt 1):061907.

Elger CE, Lehnertz K. Seizure prediction by non-linear time series analysis of

brain electrical activity. Eur J Neurosci. 1998 Feb;10(2):786-9.

Iasemidis LD. Epileptic seizure prediction and control. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2003 May;50(5):549-58.

Lehnertz K, Elger CE. "Can epileptic seizures be predicted? Evidence from nonlinear time series analysis of brain electrical activity." Physical review letters. 1998;80(22): 5019.‏

Winterhalder M, Schelter B, Maiwald T, Brandt A, Schad A, Schulze-Bonhage A, Timmer J. Spatio-temporal patient-individual assessment of synchronization changes for epileptic seizure prediction. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006 Nov;117(11):2399-413. ‏

Navarro V, Martinerie J, Le Van Quyen M, Clemenceau S, Adam C, Baulac M, Varela F. Seizure anticipation in human neocortical partial epilepsy. Brain. 2002 Mar;125(Pt 3):640-55. ‏

Ouyang G, Li X, Dang C, Richards DA. Using recurrence plot for determinism analysis of EEG recordings in genetic absence epilepsy rats. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008 Aug;119(8):1747-55.

Ouyang G, Li J, Liu X, Li X. Dynamic characteristics of absence EEG recordings with multiscale permutation entropy analysis. Epilepsy Res. 2013


Zabihi M, Kiranyaz S, Rad AB, Katsaggelos AK, Gabbouj M, Ince T. Analysis of High-Dimensional Phase Space via Poincaré Section for Patient-Specific Seizure Detection. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2016 Mar;24(3):386-98.

Lehnertz K. Epilepsy and nonlinear dynamics. J Biol Phys. 2008 Aug;34(3-4):253-66.

Kennel MB, Brown R, Abarbanel HD. Determining embedding dimension for

phase-space reconstruction using a geometrical construction. Phys Rev A. 1992 Mar 15;45(6):3403-3411.

Fraser AM, Swinney HL. Independent coordinates for strange attractors from

mutual information. Phys Rev A Gen Phys. 1986 Feb;33(2):1134-1140.

Mingqiang Y, Kpalma K, Ronsin J. A survey of shape feature extraction techniques. Pattern recognition. 2008;43-90.‏

Sven L. A survey of shape analysis techniques. Pattern recognition. 1998;31(8): 983.

Dengsheng Z, Lu G. Review of shape representation and description techniques." Pattern recognition. (2004;37(1): 1-19.‏

M. Peura and J. Iivarinen. Efficiency of simple shape descriptors. In C. Arcelli, L. P. Cordella, and G. S. di Baja, editors, Advances in Visual Form Analysis, Singapore, World Scientific. 1997, 443-451.

Van Hese P, Martens JP, Waterschoot L, Boon P, Lemahieu I. Automatic detection of spike and wave discharges in the EEG of genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2009 Mar;56(3):706-17. ‏

Xanthopoulos P, Liu CC, Zhang J, Miller ER, Nair SP, Uthman BM, Kelly K, Pardalos PM. A robust spike and wave algorithm for detecting seizures in a genetic absence seizure model. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009;2184-7.

Buteneers, Pieter, et al. "Real-time epileptic seizure detection on intra-cranial rat data using reservoir computing." International Conference on Neural Information Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.‏

Startceva, Sofia A., et al. "A new method for automatic marking epileptic spike-wave discharges in local field potential signals." Saratov Fall Meeting 2014. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2015.‏

Richard CD, Tanenbaum A, Audit B, Arneodo A, Khalil A, Frankel WN. SWDreader: a wavelet-based algorithm using spectral phase to characterize spike-wave morphological variation in genetic models of absence epilepsy. J Neurosci Methods. 2015 Mar 15;242:127-40.


  • There are currently no refbacks.